The Sanskrit Language
作者:Walter Harding Maurer

Lesson 7

Exercise Page 99

Exercise Page 103

 Lesson 7

Pronoun Declension
Gerund-PPP Phrases




CORRECTION: Page 105, second-last line, the noun 'वासुधा' should be 'वसुधा', i.e. no '' after 'व्'.


·      On      Page 99, the word जन्तुः occurs on the fourth line of the exercise. This is 1/1 of      the masculine noun जन्तु. Noun stems ending in will be covered      formally in Lesson 10.

·      On      Page 103, the word अयम् occurs several times. This is 1/1 masculine pronoun 'इदम्',      which will be learned in Lesson 8. It can be translated as 'this'.

·      On      Page 103, the word भूम्याम् occurs on the second-last line. This is 7/1 of the word 'भूमि'.      Noun stems ending in  will be covered in Lesson 10.

Pronoun Declension

Words classified as pronouns in Sanskrit share a similar set of endings. Thus the case and number of a pronoun should be easily recognizable. For example, तस्मिन्,एतस्मिन्, यस्मिन्, कस्मिन्, and अस्मिन् are the masculine or neuter 7/1 forms of the pronouns तत्, एतत्, यत्, किम्, and इदम्. The relationships and steps to forming these pronouns are presented in the chart available for download below. The pronoun 'इदम्' introduced in the next lesson has the most unique forms, which require some memorization. Other common words that follow pronoun declension are सर्व ('all'),अन्य ('other'), एक ('one'), and पूर्व ('previous').

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Pronoun  Chart     (Colour)

Download File


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Pronoun Chart      (Black)

Download File


<h2 style="margin-bottom: 0.0001pt;>Gerund-PPP Phrases

Three ways of conveying an action have been taught so far:

·      Present/imperfect      tense verb: agent (doer) in first case, object in second case

·      Gerund: agent in      first case, object in second case

·      PPP: agent in third      case, object in same case as PPP

A common construction in the exercises in this book which tends to give students some difficulty is the presence of both gerunds and PPPs in a sentence. It must be kept in mind that the doer of gerunds in a sentence is the same as the doer of the present/imperfect tense verb or PPP. This means that the doer of a gerund will be in first case when a present/imperfect tense verb is used, but will be in third case when a PPP is used.

For example, the sentence "
तेन सिंहेन स्वग्रामं गत्वा मार्जारः प्रयत्नात् अानीयकन्दरे धृतः" should be translated as "Having gone to his own village, having brought it out of effort, by the lion a cat was kept in the cave". Similarly, the sentence "अन्येनधूर्तेन तं अधिगम्य तद् एव उक्तम्" should be translated as "Having approached him, by another rogue that alone was said".

TIP: In a sentence with both gerunds and a PPP, the doer of both in third case will often be placed at the beginning of the sentence in Sanskrit. However in English it is often clearer to place the doer near the PPP towards the end of the sentence. For example in the sentence above, "Having approached him, by another rogue that alone was said" is clearer than "By another rogue, having approached him, that alone was said".