- Sanskrit Grammar
- 作者：William Dwight Whitney
- 出版社：Dover Publications
- CHAPTER I.
- CHAPTER II.
- CHAPTER III.
- CHAPTER IV.
- CHAPTER V.
- CHAPTER VI.
- CHAPTER VII.
- CHAPTER VIII.
- CHAPTER IX.
- CHAPTER X.
- CHAPTER XI.
- CHAPTER XII.
- CHAPTER XIII.
- CHAPTER XIV.
- CHAPTER XV.
- CHAPTER XVI.
- CHAPTER XVII.
- CHAPTER XVIII.
- SANSKRIT INDEX.
- GENERAL INDEX.
CHAPTER IX. ?xml:namespace>
599. The present-system, or system of forms coming from the present-stem, is composed (as was pointed out above) of a present indicative tense, together with a subjunctive (mostly lost in the classical language), an optative, an imperative, and a participle, and also a past tense, an augment-preterit, to which we give (by analogy with the Greek) the name of imperfect.
a. These forms often go in Sanskrit grammars by the name of "special tenses", while the other tense-systems are styled "general tenses" — as if the former were made from a special tense-stem or modified root, while the latter came, all alike, from the root itself. There is no reason why such a distinction and nomenclature should be retained; since, on the one hand, the "special tenses" come in one set of verbs directly from the root, and, on the other hand, the other tense-systems are mostly made from stems — and, in the case of the aorist, from stems having a variety of form comparable with that of present-stems.
600. Practically, the present-system is the most prominent and important part of the whole conjugation, since, from the earliest period of the language, its forms are very much more frequent than those of all the other systems together.
a. Thus, in the Veda, the occurrences of personal forms of this system are to those of all others about as three to one; in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, as five to one; in the Hitopadeça, as six to one; in the Çakuntalā, as eight to one; in Manu, as thirty to one.
601. And, as there is also great variety in the manner in which different roots form their present-stem, this, as being their most conspicuous difference, is made the basis of their principal classification; and a verb is said to be of this or of that conjugation, or class, according to the way in which its present-stem is made and inflected.
602. In a small minority of verbs, the present-stem is identical with the root. Then there are besides (excluding the passive and causative) seven more or less different methods of forming a present-stem from the root, each method being followed by a larger or smaller number of verbs. These are the "classes" or "conjugation-classes", as laid down by the native Hindu grammarians. They are arranged by the latter in a certain wholly artificial and unsystematic order (the ground of which has never been discovered); and they are wont to be designated in European works according to this order, or else, after Hindu example, by the root standing at the head of each class in the Hindu lists. A different arrangement and nomenclature will be followed here, namely as below — the classes being divided (as is usual in European grammars) into two more general classes or conjugations, distinguished from one another by wider differences than those which separate the special classes.
603. The classes of the First or non-a-Conjugation are as follows:
I. The root-class (second class, or ad-class, of the Hindu grammarians); its present-stem is coincident with the root itself: thus, अद्ad eat;इ i go;आस् ās sit;या yā go;द्विष् dviṣ hate;दुह् duh milk.
II. The reduplicating class (third or hu-class); the root is reduplicated to form the present-stem: thus, जुहु juhu from √हु husacrifice; ददा dadā from √दा dā give;बिभृ bibhṛ from √भृ bhṛ bear.
III. The nasal class (seventh or rudh-class); a nasal, extended to the syllable न na in strong forms, is inserted before the final consonant of the root: thus, रुन्ध् rundh (or रुणध् ruṇadh) from √रुध् rudh obstruct;युञ्ज् yuñj (or युनज् yunaj) from √युज् yuj join.
IV. a. The nu-class (fifth or su-class); the syllable नु nu is added to the root: thus, सुनु sunu from √सु su press out; आप्नु āpnu from √आप् āp obtain.
b. A very small number (only half-a-dozen) of roots ending already in न् n, and also one very common and quite irregularly inflected root not so ending (कृ kṛ make), add उ u alone to form the present-stem. This is the eighth or tan-class of the Hindu grammarians; it may be best ranked by us as a sub-class, the u-class: thus, तनु tanu from √तन् tan stretch.
V. The nā-class (ninth or krī-class); the syllable ना nā (or, in weak forms, नी nī) is added to the root: thus, क्रीणा krīṇā (or क्रीणीkrīṇī) from √क्री krī buy;स्तभ्ना stabhnā (or स्तभ्नी stabhnī) from √स्तभ् stabh establish.
604. These classes have in common, as their most fundamental characteristic, a shift of accent: the tone being now upon the ending, and now upon the root or the class-sign. Along with this goes a variatior in the stem itself, which has a stronger or fuller form when the accent rests upon it, and a weaker or briefer form when the accent is on the ending these: forms are to be distinguished as the strong stem and the weak stem respectively (in part, both have been given above). The classes also form their optative active, their 2d sing. imperative, their 3d pl. middle, and their middle participle, in a different manner from the others.
605. In the classes of the Second or a-Conjugation, the present-stem ends in a, and the accent has a fixed place, remaining always upon the same syllable of the stem, and never shifted to the endings. Also, the optative, the 2d sing. impv., the 3d pl. middle, and the middleparticiple, are (as just stated) unlike those of the other conjugation.
606. The classes of this conjugation are as follows:
VI. The a-class, or unaccented a-class (first or bhū-class); the added class-sign is a simply; and the root, which has the accent, is (if capable of it) strengthened by guṇa throughout: thus, भव bháva from √भू bhū be;नय náya from √नी nī lead;बोध bódha from √बुध्budh wake;वद váda from √वद् vad speak.
VII. The á-class, or accented a-class (sixth or tud-class); the added class-sign is a, as in the preceding class; but it has the accent, and the unaccented root remains unstrengthened: thus, तुद tudá from √तुद् tud thrust;सृज sṛjá from √सृज् sṛj let loose; सुव suvá from √सू sū give birth.
VIII. The ya-class (fourth or div-class); ya is added to the root, which has the accent: thus, दीव्य dī́vya from √दिव् div (more properly दीव् dīv: see 765) play;नह्य náhya from √नह् nah bind;क्रुध्य krúdhya from √क्रुध् krudh be angry.
IX. The passive conjugation is also properly a present-system only, having a class-sign which is not extended into the other systems; though it differs markedly from the remaining classes in having a specific meaning, and in being formable in the middle voice from all transitive verbs. Its inflection may therefore best be treated next to that of the ya-class, with which it is most nearly connected, differing from it as the á-class from the a-class. It forms its stem, namely, by adding an accented yá to the root: thus, अद्य adyá from √अद् ad eat;रुध्य rudhyá from √रुध् rudh obstruct;बुध्य budhyá from √बुध् budh wake;तुद्य tudyá from √तुद् tud thrust.
607. The Hindu grammarians reckon a tenth class or cur-class, having a class-sign áya added to a strengthened root (thus, coráya from √cur), and an inflection like that of the other a-stems. Since, however, this stem is not limited to the present-system, but extends also into the rest of the conjugation — while it also has to a great extent a causative value, and may be formed in that value from a large number of roots — it will be best treated in full along with the derivative conjugations (chap. XIV., 1041 ff.).
608. A small number of roots add in the present-system a ch, or substitute a ch for their final consonant, and form a stem ending in chaor chá, which is then inflected like any a-stem. This is historically, doubtless, a true class-sign, analogous with the rest; but the verbs showing it are so few, and in formation so irregular, that they are not well to be put together into a class, but may best be treated as special cases falling under the other classes.
a. Roots adding ch are ṛ and yu, which make the stems ṛcchá and yúccha.
b. Roots substituting ch for their final are iṣ, uṣ (or vas shine), gam, yam, which make the stems icchá, ucchá, gáccha, yáccha.
c. Of the so-called roots ending in ch, several are more or less clearly stems, whose use has been extended from the present to other systems of tenses.
609. Roots are not wholly limited, even in the later language, to one mode of formation of their present-stem, but are sometimes reckoned as belonging to two or more different conjugation-classes. And such variety of formation is especially frequent in the Veda, being exhibited by a considerable proportion of the roots there occurring; already in the Brāhmaṇas, however, a condition is reached nearly agreeing in this respect with the classical language. The different present-formations sometimes have differences of meaning; yet not more important ones than are often found belonging to the same formation, nor of a kind to show clearly a difference of value as originally belonging to the separate classes of presents. If anything of this kind is to be established, it must be from the derivative conjugations, which are separated by no fixed line from the present-systems.
610. We take up now the different classes, in the order in which they have been arranged above, to describe more in detail, and with illustration, the formation of their present-systems, and to notice the irregularities belonging under each class.
I. Root-class (second, ad-class).
611. In this class there is no class-sign; the root itself is also present-stem, and to it are added directly the personal endings — but combined in subjunctive and optative with the respective mode-signs; and in the imperfect the augment is prefixed to the root.
a. The accented endings (552) regularly take the accent — except in the imperfect, where it falls on the augment — and before them the root remains unchanged; before the unaccented endings, the root takes the guṇa-strengthening.
b. It is only in the first three classes that the endings come immediately in contact with a final consonant of the root, and that the roles for consonant combination have to be noted and applied. In these classes, then, additional paradigms will be given, to illustrate the modes of combination.
1. Present Indicative.
612. The endings are the primary (with अते áte in 3d pl. mid.), added to the bare root. The root takes the accent, and has guṇa, if capable of it, in the three persons sing. act.
Examples of inflection: a. active, root इ i go: strong form of root-stem, ए é; weak form, इ i; middle, root ās sit, stem ā́s(irregularly accented throughout: 628).
b. root dviṣ. hate: strong stem-form, dvéṣ; weak, dviṣ. For rules of combination for the final ṣ, see 226.
c. root duh milk: strong stem-form, dóh; weak, duh. For rules of combination for the final h, and for the conversion of the initial todh, see 222 a, 155, 160.
d. root lih lick: strong stem, léh; weak, lih. For rules of combination of the final h, see 222 b.
613. Examples of the 3d sing. mid. coincident in form with the 1st sing. are not rare in the older language (both V. and B.): the most frequent examples are ī́çe, duhé, vidé, çáye; more sporadic are cité, bruve, huvé. To tha of the 2d pl. is added na in sthána, pāthánā, yāthána. The irregular accent of the 3d pl. mid. is found in RV. in rihaté, duhaté. Examples of the same person in re and rate also occur: thus (besides those mentioned below, 629–30, 635), vidré, and, with auxiliary vowel, arhire (unless these are to be ranked, rather, as perfect forms without reduplication: 790 b).
2. Present Subjunctive.
614. Subjunctive forms of this class are not uncommon in the older language, and nearly all those which the formation anywhere admits are quotable, from Veda or from Brāhmaṇa. A complete paradigm, accordingly, is given below, with the few forms not actually quotable for this class enclosed in brackets. We may take as models (as above), for the active the root i go, and for the middle the root ās sit, from both of which numerous forms are met with (although neither for these nor for any others can the whole series be found in actual use).
a. The mode-stems are áya (é+a) and ā́sa (ā́s+a) respectively.
615. The RV. has no middle forms in āi except those of the first person. The 1st. sing. act. in ā occurs only in RV., in ayā, bravā, stávā. The 2d and 3d sing. act. with primary endings are very unusual in the Brāhmaṇas. Forms irregularly made with long ā, like those from present-stems in a, are not rare in AV. and B.: thus, ayās, ayāt, áyān; ásāt, brávāt; bravāthas; asātha, ayātha, bravātha, hanātha; ádān, dohān. Of middle forms with secondary endings are found hánanta, 3d pl., and īçata, 3d sing. (after mā́ prohibitive), which is an isolated example. The only dual person in āite is brávāite.
3. Present Optative.
616. The personal endings combined with the mode-signs of this mode (या yā in act., ई ī in mid.) have been given in full above (566). The stem-form is the unaccented and unstrengthened root.
a. In the same manner, from √dviṣ, dviṣyā́m and dviṣīyá; from √duh, duhyā́m and duhīyá; from √lih, lihyā́m and lihīyá. The inflection is so regular that the example above given is enough, with the addition of dviṣīyá, to show the normal accentuation in the middle: thus, sing. dviṣīyá, dviṣīthā́s, dviṣītá; du. dviṣīváhi, dviṣīyā́thām, dviṣīyā́tām; pl. dviṣīmáhi, dviṣīdhvám, dviṣīrán.
b. The RV. has once tana in 2d pl. act. (in syātana).
4. Present Imperative.
617. The imperative adds, in second and third persons, its own endings (with अताम् atām in 3d pl. mid.) directly to the root-stem. The stem is accented and strengthened in 3d sing. act.; elsewhere, the accent is on the ending and the root remains unchanged. The first persons, so called, of the later language are from the old subjunctive, and have its strengthened stem and accent; they are repeated here from where they were given above (614 a). In the 2d sing. act., the ending is regularly (as in the two following classes) धि dhi if the root end with a consonant, and हि hi if it end with a vowel. As examples we take the roots already used for the purpose.
a. Thus, from the roots इ i and आस् ās:
b. From the roots dviṣ and duh and lih:
618. The 2d sing. act. ending tāt is found in the older language in a few verbs of this class: namely, vittā́t, vītāt, brūtā́t, hatāt, yātāt, stutāt. In 3d sing. mid., two or three verbs have in the older language the ending ām: thus, duhā́m (only RV. case), vidām, çayām; and in 3d pl. mid. AV. has duhrā́m and duhratām. The use of tana for ta in 2d pl. act. is quite frequent in the Veda: thus,itana, yātána, attana, etc. And in stota, éta étana, bravītana, çāstána, hantana, we have examples in the same person of a strong (and accented) stem.
5. Present Participle.
619. a. The active participle has the ending अन्त् ánt (weak stem-form अत् at) added to the unstrengthened root. Mechanically, it may be formed from the 3d pl. by dropping the final इ i. Thus, for the verbs inflected above, the active participles are यन्त् yánt, दुहन्त्duhánt, द्विषन्त् dviṣánt, लिहन्त् lihánt. The feminine stem ends usually in अती atī́: thus, यती yatī́, दुहती duhatī́, द्विषती dviṣatī́, लिहतीlihatī́: but, from roots in ā, in आन्ती ā́ntī or आती ātī́ (449 g).
b. The middle participle has the ending आन āná, added to the unstrengthened root: thus, इयान iyāná, दुहान duhāná, द्विषाण dviṣāṇá, लिहानlihāná.
c. The root ās forms the anomalous and isolated ā́sīna (in RV. also āsāná).
d. But a number of these participles in the older language have a double accent, either on the ending or on the radical syllable: thus,īçāná and ī́çāna, ohāná and óhāna, duhāná and dúhāna (also dúghāna), rihāṇá and ríhāṇa, vidāná and vídāna, suvāná and súvāna, stuvānáand stavāná and stávāna — the last having in part also a strong form of the root.
620. This tense adds the secondary endings to the root as increased by prefixion of the augment. The root has the guṇa-strengthening (if capable of it) in the three persons of the singular active, although the accent is always upon the augment. Examples of inflection are:
a. From the roots इ i and आस् ās:
b. From the roots dviṣ and duh and lih:
621. a. Roots ending in ā may in the later language optionally take us instead of an in 3d pl. act. (the ā being lost before it); and in the older they always do so: thus, áyus from √yā, ápus from √pā protect, abhus from √bhā. The same ending is also allowed and met with in the case of a few roots ending in consonants: namely vid know, cakṣ, dviṣ, duh, mṛj. RV. has atviṣus.
b. The ending tana, 2d pl. act., is found in the Veda in áyātana, ásastana, āítana, ábravītana. A strong stem is seen in the 1st pl.homa, and the 2d pl. abravīta and ábravītana.
c. To save the characteristic endings in 2d and 3d sing. act., the root ad inserts a: thus, ā́das, ā́dat; the root as inserts ī: thus,ā́sīs, ā́sīt (see below, 636); compare also 631–4.
622. The use of the persons of this tense, without augment, in the older language, has been noticed above (587). Augmentless imperfects of this class are rather uncommon in the Veda: thus, hán, vés, 2d sing.; han, vet, stāut, dán (?), 3d sing.; bruvan, duhús, cakṣus, 3d pl.; vasta, sūta, 3d sing. mid.
623. The first or root-form of aorist is identical in its formation with this imperfect: see below, 829 ff.
624. In the Veda (but hardly outside of the RV.) are found certain 2d sing. forms, having an imperative value, made by adding the endingsi to the (accented and strengthened) root. In part, they are the only root-forms belonging to the roots from which they come: thus,jóṣi (for jóṣṣi, from √juṣ), dhákṣi, párṣi (√pṛ pass), prā́si, bhakṣi, ratsi, sátsi, hoṣi; but the majority of them have forms (one or more) of a root-present, or sometimes of a root-aorist, beside them: thus, kṣéṣi (√kṣi rule), jéṣi, dárṣi, nakṣi (√naç. attain),néṣi, mátsi, māsi (√mā measure), yákṣi, yáṁsi, yāsi, yótsi, rā́si, vákṣi (√vah), véṣi, çróṣi, sakṣi. Their formal character is somewhat disputed; but they are probably indicative persons of the root-class, used imperatively.
625. Forms of this class are made from nearly 150 roots, either in the earlier language, or in the later, or in both: namely, from about 50 through the whole life of the language, from 80 in the older period (of Veda, Brāhmaṇa, and Sūtra) alone, and from a few (about 15) in the later period (epic and classical) only. Not a few of these roots, however, show only sporadic root-forms, beside a more usual conjugation of some other class; nor is it in all cases possible to separate clearly root-present from root-aorist forms.
a. Many roots of this class, as of the other classes of the first conjugation, show transfers to the second or a-conjugation, forming a conjugation-stem by adding a to their strong or weak stem, or even to both: thus, from √mṛj, both mārja (627) and mṛja. Such transfers are met with even in the oldest language; but they usually become more frequent later, often establishing a new mode of present inflection by the side of, or in substitution for, the earlier mode.
b. A number of roots offer irregularities of inflection; these are, in the main, pointed out in the following paragraphs.
Irregularities of the Root-class.
626. The roots of the class ending in u have in their strong forms the vṛddhi instead of the guṇa-strengthening before an ending beginning with a consonant: thus, from √stu, stāúmi, ástāut, and the like: but ástavam, stávāni, etc.
a. Roots found to exhibit this peculiarity in actual use are kṣṇu, yu unite, su (or sū) impel, sku, stu, snu (these in the earlier language), nu, ru, and hnu. RV. has once stoṣi, and anāvan. Compare also 633.
627. The root mṛj also has the vṛddhi-vowel in its strong forms: thus, mā́rjmi, ámārjam, ámārṭ (150 b); and the same strengthening is said to be allowed in weak forms before endings beginning with a vowel: thus, mārjantu, amārjan; but the only quotable case is mārjīta(LÇS.). Forms from a-stems begin to appear already in AV.
a In the other tense-systems, also, and in derivation, mṛj shows often the vṛddhi instead of the guṇa-strengthening.
628. A number of roots accent the radical syllable throughout, both in strong and in weak forms: thus, all those beginning with a long vowel, ās, īḍ, īr, īç; and also cakṣ, takṣ, trā, nīṅs, vas clothe, çiñj, çī lie, and sū. All these, except takṣ and trā (and trā also in the Vedic forms), are ordinarily conjugated in middle voice only. Forms with the same irregular accent occur now and then in the Veda from other verbs: thus, mátsva, yákṣva, sákṣva, sā́kṣva, ṛ́dhat. Middle participles so accented have been noticed above (619 d).
629. Of the roots mentioned in the last paragraph, çī lie has the guṇa-strengthening throughout: thus, çáye, çéṣe, çáyīya, çáyāna, and so on. Other irregularities in its inflection (in part already noticed) are the 3d pl. persons çérate (AV. etc. have also çére),çératām, áçerata (RV. has also áçeran), the 3d sing. pres. çáye (R.) and impv. çáyām. The isolated active form áçayat is common in the older language; other a-forms, active and middle, occur later.
630. Of the same roots, īḍ and īç insert a union-vowel i before certain endings: thus, ī́çiṣe, ī́çidhve, ī́ḍiṣva (these three being the only forms noted in the older language); but RV. has ī́kṣe beside ī́çiṣe; the ÇvU. has once īçite for īṣṭe. The 3d pl. ī́çire (on account of its accent) is also apparently present rather than perfect. The MS. has once the 3d sing. impf. āiça (like aduha: 635).
631. The roots rud weep, svap sleep, an breathe, and çvas blow insert a union-vowel i before all the endings beginning with a consonant, except the s and t of 2d and 3d sing. impf., where they insert instead either a or ī: thus, svápimi, çvásiṣi, ániti, and ā́nat or ā́nīt. And in the other forms, the last three are allowed to accent either root or ending: thus, svápantu and çvásantu (AV.), or svapántu etc. The AV. has sváptu instead of svápitu.
a. In the older language, √vam makes the same insertions: thus, vamiti, avamīt; and other cases occasionally occur: thus, jániṣva, vasiṣva (√vas clothe), çnathihi, stanihi (all RV.), yamiti (JB.), çocimi (MBh.). On the other hand, √an early makes forms from an a-stem: thus, ánati (AV.); pple ánant (ÇB.); opt. anet (AB.).
632. The root brū speak, say (of very frequent use) takes the union-vowel ī after the root when strengthened, before the initial consonant of an ending: thus, brávīmi, brávīṣi, brávīti, ábravīs, ábravīt; but brūmás, brūyā́m, ábravam, ábruvan, etc. Special occasional irregularities are brūmi, bravīhi, abruvam, abrūvan, bruyāt, and sporadic forms from an a-stem. The subj. dual brávāite has been noticed above (616); also the strong forms abravīta, ábravītana (621 a).
633. Some of the roots in u are allowed to be inflected like brū: namely, ku, tu, ru, and stu; and an occasional instance is met with of a form so made (in the older language, only tavīti noted; in the later, only stavīmi, once).
634. The root am (hardly found in the later language) takes ī as union-vowel: thus, amīṣi (RV.), amīti and āmīt and amīṣva (TS). From √çam occur çamīṣva (VS. ; TS. çamiṣva) and çamīdhvam (TB. etc.).
635. The irregularities of √duh in the older language have been already in part noted: the 3d pl. indic. mid. duhaté, duhré, andduhráte; 3d sing. impv. duhā́m, pl. duhrā́m and duhratām; impf. act. 3d sing. áduhat (which is found also in the later language), 3d pl.aduhran (beside áduhan and duhús); the mid. pple dúghāna; and (quite unexampled elsewhere) the opt. forms duhīyát and duhīyán (RV. only). The MS. has aduha 3d sing. and aduhra 3d pl. impf. mid., apparently formed to correspond to the pres. duhe (613) and duhre asadugdha and aduhata correspond to dugdhe and duhate: compare āiça (630), related in like manner to the 3d sing. īçe.
Some of the roots of this class are abbreviated or otherwise weakened in their weak forms: thus: —
636. The root अस् as be loses its vowel in weak forms (except where protected by combination with the augment). Its 2d sing. indic. is असि ási (instead of assi); its 2d sing. impv. is एधि edhí (irregularly from asdhi). The insertion of ई ī in 2d and 3d sing. impf. has been noticed already above.
a. The forms of this extremely common verb are, then, as follows:
Participle सन्त् sánt (fem. सती satī́).
b. Besides the forms of the present-system, there is made from this root only a perfect, ā́sa etc. (800), of wholly regular inflection.
c. The Vedic subjunctive forms are the usual ones, made upon the stem ása. They are in frequent use, and appear (asat especially) even in late texts where the subjunctive is almost lost. The resolution siā́m etc. (opt.) is common in Vedic verse. As 2d and 3d sing. impf. is a few times met with the more normal ās (for ās-s, ās-t). Sthána, 2d pl., was noted above (613).
d. Middle forms from √as are also given by the grammarians as allowed with certain prepositions (vi+ati), but they are not quotable;smahe and syāmahe (!) occur in the epics, but are merely instances of the ordinary epic confusion of voices (529 a). Confusions of primary and secondary endings — namely, sva and sma (not rare), and, on the other hand, syāvas and syāmas — are also epic. A middle present indicative is said to be compounded (in 1st and 2d persons) with the nomen agentis in tṛ (tar) to form a periphrastic future in the middle voice (but see below, 947). The 1st sing. indic. is he; the rest is in the usual relation of middle to active forms (in 2d pers., se, dhve, sva, dhvam, with total loss of the root itself).
637. The root han smite, slay is treated somewhat after the manner of noun-stems in an in declension (421): in weak forms, it loses itsn before an initial consonant (except m and v) of a personal ending (not in the optative), and its a before an initial vowel — and in the latter case its h, in contact with the n, is changed to gh (compare 402). Thus, for example:
a. Its participle is ghnánt (fem. ghnatī́). Its 2d sing. impv. is jahí (by anomalous dissimilation, on the model of reduplicating forms).
b. Middle forms from this root are frequent in the Brāhmaṇas, and those that occur are formed in general according to the same rules: thus, hate, hanmahe, ghnate; ahata, aghnātām, aghnata (in AB., also ahata); ghnīta (but also hanīta). Forms from transfer-stems, hanaand ghna, are met with from an early period.
638. The root vaç be eager is in the weak forms regularly and usually contracted to uç (as in the perfect: 794 b): thus, uçmási (V.: once apparently abbreviated in RV. to çmasi), uçánti; pple uçánt, uçāná. Middle forms (except the pple) do not occur; nor do the weak forms of the imperfect, which are given as āuçva, āuṣṭam, etc.
a. RV. has in like, manner the participle uṣāṇá from the root vas clothe.
639. The root çās order shows some of the peculiarities of a reduplicated verb, lacking (646) the n before t in all 3d persons pl. and in the active participle. A part of its active forms — namely, the weak forms having endings beginning with consonants (including the optative) — are said to come from a stem with weakened vowel, çiṣ (as do the aorist, 854, and some of the derivatives); but, excepting the optative (çiṣyām etc., U. S. and later), no such forms are quotable.
a. The 3d sing. impf. is açāt (555 a), and the same form is said to be allowed also as 2d sing. The 2d sing. impv. is çādhí (with total loss of the s); and RV. has the strong 2d pl. çāstána (with anomalous accent); and a-forms, from stem (çāsa, occasionally occur.
b. The middle inflection is regular, and the accent (apparently) always upon the radical syllable (çā́ste, (çā́sate, çā́sāna).
c. The root dāç worship has in like manner (RV.) the pple dā́çat (not dā́çant).
640. The double so-called root jakṣ eat, laugh is an evident reduplication of ghas and has respectively. It has the absence of n in act.3d persons pl. and pple, and the accent on the root before vowel-endings, which belong to reduplicated verbs; and it also takes the union-vowel i in the manner of rud etc. (above, 631). For its forms and derivatives made with utter loss of the final sibilant, see 233 f.
641. Certain other obviously reduplicated verbs are treated by the native grammarians as if simple, and referred to this conjugation: such are the intensively reduplicated jāgṛ (1020 a), daridrā (1024 a), and vevī (1024 a), dīdhī etc. (676), and cakās (677).
II. Reduplicating Class (third, hu-class).
642. This class forms its present-stem by prefixing a reduplication to the root.
643. a. As regards the consonant of the reduplication, the general rules which have already been given above (590) are followed.
b. A long vowel is shortened in the reduplicating syllable: thus,
ददा dadā from √दा dā; बिभी bibhī from √भी bhī; जुहू juhū from √हू hū. The vowel ऋ ṛ never appears in the reduplication, but is replaced by इ i: thus, बिभृ bibhṛ from √भृ bhṛ; पिपृच् pipṛc from √पृच् pṛc.
c. For verbs in which a and ā also are irregularly represented in the reduplication by i, see below, 660. The root vṛt (V. B.) makesvavartti etc.; cakránt (RV.) is very doubtful.
d. The only root of this class with initial vowel is ṛ (or ar); it takes as reduplication i, which is held apart from the root by an interposed y: thus, iyar and iyṛ (the latter has not been found in actual use).
644. The present-stem of this class (as of the other classes belonging to the first or non-a-conjugation) has a double form: a stronger form, with gunated root-vowel; and a weaker form, without guṇa: thus, from √हु hu, the two forms are जुहो juho and जुहु juhu; from √भीbhī, they are बिभे bibhe and बिभी bibhī. And the rule for their use is the same as in the other classes of this conjugation: the strong stem is found before the unaccented endings (552), and the weak stem before the accented.
645. According to all the analogies of the first general conjugation, we should expect to find the accent upon the root-syllable when this is strengthened. That is actually the case, however, only in a small minority of the roots composing the class: namely, in hu, bhī(no test-forms in the older language), hrī (no test-forms found in the older language), mad (very rare), jan (no forms of this class found to occur) , ci notice (in V.), yu separate (in older language only), and in bhṛ in the later language (in V. it goes with the majority: but RV. has bibhárti once, and AV. twice; and this, the later accentuation, is found also in the Brāhmaṇas); and RV. has onceiyárṣi. In all the rest — apparently, by a recent transfer — it rests upon the reduplicating instead of upon the radical syllable. And in both classes alike, the accent is anomalously thrown back upon the reduplication in those weak forms of which the ending begins with a vowel; while in the other weak forms it is upon the ending (but compare 666 a).
a. Apparently (the cases with written accent are too few to determine the point satisfactorily) the middle optative endings, īya etc. (566), are reckoned throughout as endings with initial vowel, and throw back the accent upon the reduplication.
646. The verbs of this class lose the न् n in the 3d pl. endings in active as well as middle, and in the imperfect have उस् us instead ofअन् an — and before this a final radical vowel has guṇa.
1. Present Indicative.
647. The combination of stem and endings is as in the preceding class.
Examples of inflection: a. √हु hu sacrifice: strong stem-form, जुहो juhó; weak form,जुहु juhu (or júhu).
b. Root भृ bhṛ bear (given with Vedic accentuation): strong stem-form, बिभर् bíbhar; weak, बिभृ bibhṛ (or bíbhṛ).
c. The u of hu (like that of the class-signs nu and u: see below, 697 a) is said to be omissible before v and m of the endings of 1st du. and pl.: thus, juhvás, juhváhe, etc.; but no such forms are quotable.
2. Present Subjunctive.
648. It is not possible at present to draw a distinct line between those subjunctive forms of the older language which should be reckoned as belonging to the present-system and those which should be assigned to the perfect — or even, in some cases, to the reduplicated aorist and intensive. Here will be noticed only those which most clearly belong to this class; the more doubtful cases will be treated under the perfect-system. Except in first persons (which continue in use as "imperatives" down to the later language), subjunctives from roots having unmistakably a reduplicated present-system are of far from frequent occurrence.
649. The subjunctive mode-stem is formed in the usual manner, with the mode-sign a and guṇa of the root-vowel, if this is capable of such strengthening. The evidence of the few accented forms met with indicates that the accent is laid in accordance with that of the strong indicative forms: thus, from √hu, the stem would be juháva; from √bhṛ, it would be bíbhara (but bibhára later). Before the mode-sign, final radical ā would be, in accordance with analogies elsewhere, dropped: thus, dáda from √dā, dádha from √dhā (all the forms actually occurring would be derivable from the secondary roots dad and dadh).
650. Instead of giving a theoretically complete scheme of inflection, it will be better to note all the examples quotable from the older language (accented when found so occurring).
a. Thus, of 1st persons, we have in the active juhávāni, bibharāṇi, dadāni, dadhāni, jahāni; juhavāma, dádhāma, jáhāma; — in the middle, dadhāi, mimāi; dadhāvahāi; juhavāmahāi, dadāmahe, dadāmahāi, dadhāmahāi.
b. Of other persons, we have with primary endings in the active bibharāsi (with double mode-sign: 560 e), dádhathas, juhavātha (do.) andjuhavatha; in the middle, dádhase; dádhate, rárate, dádhātāi, dadātāi; — with secondary endings, dádhas, víveṣas, juhavat, bibharat, yuyávat, dádhat, dadhánat, babhasat; dadhan, yuyavan, juhavan.
3. Present Optative.
651. To form this mode, the optative endings given above (566 a), as made up of mode-sign and personal endings, are added to the unstrengthened stem. The accent is as already stated (645 a). The inflection is so regular that it is unnecessary to give here more than the first persons of a single verb: thus,
4. Present Imperative.
652. The endings, and the mode of their combination with the root, have been already given. In 2d sing. act., the ending is हि hi after a vowel, but धि dhi after a consonant: हु hu, however, formsजुहुधि juhudhí (apparently, in order to avoid the recurrence of ह् h in two successive syllables): and other examples of धि dhi after a vowel are found in the Veda.
653. a. Example of inflection:
b. The verbs of the other division differ here, as in the indicative, in the accentuation of their strong forms only: namely, in all thefirst persons (borrowed subjunctives), and in the 3d sing. act.: thus, (in the older language) bíbharāṇi etc., bíbhartu, bíbharāi etc.
654. Vedic irregularities of inflection are: 1. the occasional use of strong forms in 2d persons: thus, yuyodhí, çiçādhi (besideçiçīhí); yuyotam (beside yuyutám); íyarta, dádāta and dadātana, dádhāta and dádhātana (see below, 668), pipartana, juhóta and juhótana, yuyota and yuyotana; rarāsva (666); 2. the use of dhi instead of hi after a vowel (only in the two instances just quoted); 3. the endingtana in 2d pl. act.: namely, besides those just given, in jigātana, dhattana, mamáttana, vivaktana, didiṣṭana, bibhītana, jujuṣṭana, juhutana, vavṛttana: the cases are proportionally much more numerous in this than in any other class; 4. the ending tāt in 2d sing. act., in dattāt, dhattā́t, pipṛtāt, jahītāt.
5. Present Participle.
655. As elsewhere, the active participle-stem may be made mechanically from the 3d pl. indic. by dropping इ i: thus, जुह्वत् júhvat, बिभ्रत्bíbhrat. In inflection, it has no distinction of strong and weak forms (444). The feminine stem ends inअती atī. The middle participles are regularly made: thus, जुह्वान júhvāna, बिभ्राण bíbhrāṇa.
a. RV. shows an irregular accent in pipāná (√pā drink).
656. As already pointed out, the 3d pl. act. of this class takes the ending उस् us, and a final radical vowel has guṇa before it. The strong forms are, as in present indicative, the three singular active persons.
657. Examples of inflection:
a. From √भृ bhṛ, the 2d and 3d sing. act. are अबिभर् ábibhar (for abibhar-s and abibhar-t) — and so in all other cases where the strong stem ends in a consonant. The 3d pl. act. is अबिभरुस् ábibharus; and other like cases are ábibhayus, acikayus, asuṣavus.
b. In MS., once, abibhrus is doubtless a false reading.
658. The usual Vedic irregularities in 2d pl. act. — strong forms, and the ending tana — occur in this tense also: thus, ádadāta,ádadhāta; ádattana, ájahātana. The RV. has also once apiprata for apipṛta in 3d sing. mid., and abibhran for abibharus in 3d pl. act. Examples of augmentless forms are çiçās, vivés, jígāt; jíhīta, çíçīta, jihata; and, with irregular strengthening, yuyoma (AV.),yuyothās, yuyota.
659. The roots that form their present-stem by reduplication are a very small class, especially in the modern language; they are only 50, all told, and of these only a third (16) are met with later. It is, however, very difficult to determine the precise limits of the class, because of the impossibility (referred to above, under subjunctive: 648) of always distinguishing its forms from those of other reduplicating conjugations and parts of conjugations.
a. Besides the irregularities in tense-inflection already pointed out, others may be noticed as follows.
Irregularities of the Reduplicating Class.
660. Besides the roots in ṛ or ar — namely, ṛ, ghṛ (usually written ghar), tṛ, pṛ, bhṛ, sṛ, hṛ, pṛc — the following roots having a orā as radical vowel take i instead of a in the reduplicating syllable: gā go, mā measure, mā bellow, çā, hā remove (mid.), vac, sac; vaç. has both i and a; rā has i once in RV.; for sthā, pā drink ghrā, han, hi, see below (670–4).
661. Several roots of this class in final ā change the ā in weak forms to ī (occasionally even to i), and then drop it altogether before endings beginning with a vowel.
a. This is in close analogy with the treatment of the vowel of the class-sign of the nā-class: below, 717.
These roots are:
662. çā sharpen, act. and mid.: thus, çiçāti, çiçīmasi, çiçīhí (also çiçādhi: above, 654), çiçātu, açiçāt, çíçīte, çíçīta.
663. mā bellow, act., and mā measure, mid. (rarely also act.): thus, mimāti, mimīyāt; mímīte, mimate, ámimīta; mimīhi, mímātu. RV. has once mimanti 3d pl. (for mimati).
664. hā remove, mid.: thus, jíhīte, jihīdhve, jíhate; jihīṣva, jihatām; ájihīta, ajihata. ÇB. has jihīthām (for jihāthām).
665. hā quit, act. (originally identical with the former), may further shorten the ī to i: thus, jahāti, jahīta, jahītāt (AV.); jahimas(AV.), jahitas (TB.), jahitam (TA.), ajahitām (TS. AB.). In the optative, the radical vowel is lost altogether; thus, jahyām, jahyus(AV.). The 2d sing. impv., according to the grammarians, is jahīhi or jahihi or jahāhi; only the first appears quotable.
a. Forms from an a-stem, jaha, are made for this root, and even derivatives from a quasi-root jah.
666. rā give, mid.: thus, rarīdhvam, rarīthās (impf. without augment); and, with i in reduplication, rirīhi. But AV. has rarāsva.
a. In these verbs, the accent is generally constant on the reduplicating syllable.
667. The two roots dā and dhā (the commonest of the class) lose their radical vowel altogether in the weak forms, being shortened to dadand dadh. In 2d sing. impv. act., they form respectively dehí and dhehí. In combination with a following t or th, the final dh of dadhdoes not follow the special rule of combination of a final sonant aspirate (becoming ddh with the t or th: 160), but — as also before sand dhv — the more general rules of aspirate and of surd and sonant combination; and its lost aspiration is thrown back upon the initial of the root (155).
668. The inflection of √dhā is, then, as follows:
Participles: act. dádhat; mid. dádhāna.
a. In the middle (except impf.), only those forms are here accented for which there is authority in the accentuated texts, as there is discordance between the actual accent and that which the analogies of the class would lead us to expect. RV. has once dhátse: dadhé anddadhā́te might be perfects, so far as the form is concerned. RV. accents dadhītá once (dádhīta thrice); several other texts havedádhīta, dádhīran, dádīta.
b. The root dā is inflected in precisely the same way, with change everywhere of (radical) dh to d.
669. The older language has irregularities as follows: 1. the usual strong forms in 2d pl., dádhāta and ádadhāta, dádāta and ádadāta; 2. the usual tana endings in the same person, dhattana, dádātana, etc. (654, 658); 3. the 3d sing. indic. act. dadhé (like 1st sing.); 4. the 2d sing. impv. act. daddhí (for both dehi and dhehi). And R. has dadmi.
670. A number of roots have been transferred from this to the a- or bhū-class (below, 749), their reduplicated root becoming a stereotyped stem inflected after the manner of a-stems. These roots are as follows:
671. In all periods of the language, from the roots sthā stand, pā drink, and ghrā smell, are made the presents tíṣṭhāmi, píbāmi (with irregular sonantizing of the second p), and jíghrāmi — which then are inflected not like mímāmi, but like bhávāmi, as if from the present-stems tíṣṭha, píba, jíghra.
672. In the Veda (especially; also later), the reduplicated roots dā and dhā are sometimes turned into the a-stems dáda and dádha, or inflected as if roots dad and dadh of the a-class; and single forms of the same character are made from other roots: thus, mimanti (√mābellow), rárate (√rā give: 3d sing. mid.).
673. In the Veda, also, a like secondary stem, jighna, is made from √han (with omission of the radical vowel, and conversion, usual in this root, of h to gh when in contact with n: 637); and some of the forms of saçc, from √sac, show the same conversion to an a-stem,saçca.
674. In AB. (viii. 28), a similar secondary form, jighya, is given to √hi or hā: thus, jighyati, jighyatu.
675. A few so-called roots of the first or root-class are the products of reduplication, more or less obvious: thus, jakṣ (640), and probably çās (from √ças) and cakṣ (from √kāç or a lost root kas see). In the Veda is found also saçc, from √sac.
676. The grammarians reckon (as already noticed, 641) several roots of the most evidently reduplicate character as simple, and belonging to the root-class. Some of these (jāgṛ, daridrā, vevī) are regular intensive stems, and will be described below under Intensives (1020 a, 1024 a); dīdhī shine, together with Vedic dīdī shine and pīpī swell, are sometimes also classed as intensives; but they have not the proper reduplication of such, and may perhaps be best noticed here, as reduplicated present-stems with irregularly long reduplicating vowel.
a. Of pres. indic. occurs in the older language only dīdyati, 3d pl., with the pples dī́dyat and dī́dhyat, and mid. dīdye, dīdhye,dīdhyāthām, with the pples dī́dyāna, dī́dhyāna, pī́pyāna. The subj. stems are dīdáya, dīdhaya, pīpáya, and from them are made forms with both primary (from dīdáya) and secondary endings (and the irregularly accented dī́dayat and dīdāyat and dī́dhayan). No opt. occurs. In impv. we have dīdihí (and didīhí) and pīpihí, and pipyatam, pipyatām, pipyata. In impf., adīdes and pīpes, ádīdet and ádīdhet and apīpet(with augmentless forms), apīpema (with strong form of root), and adīdhayus and (irregular) apīpyan.
b. A few forms from all the three show transfer to an a-inflection: thus, dīdhaya and pīpaya (impv.), ápīpayat, etc.
c. Similar forms from √mī bellow are amīmet and mīmayat.
677. The stem cakās shine (sometimes cakāç) is also regarded by the grammarians as a root, and supplied as such with tenses outside the present-system — which, however, hardly occur in genuine use. It is not known in the older language.
678. The root bhas chew loses its radical vowel in weak forms, taking the form baps: thus, bábhasti, but bápsati (3d pl.), bápsat(pple). For babdhām, see 233 f.
679. The root bhī fear is allowed by the grammarians to shorten its vowel in weak forms: thus, bibhīmas or bibhimas, bibhīyām orbibhiyām; and bibhiyāt etc. are met with in the later language.
680. Forms of this class from √jan give birth, with added i — thus, jajñiṣe, jajñidhve — are given by the grammarians, but have never been found in use.
681. The roots ci and cit have in the Veda reversion of c to k in the root-syllable after the reduplication: thus, cikéṣi, cikéthe(anomalous, for cikyā́the), cikitām, aciket, cíkyat (pple); cikiddhi.
682. The root vyac has i in the reduplication (from the y), and is contracted to vic in weak forms: thus, viviktás, áviviktām. So the root hvar (if its forms are to be reckoned here) has u in reduplication, and contracts to hur: thus, juhūrthās.
III. Nasal Class (seventh, rudh-class).
683. The roots of this class all end in consonants. And their class-sign is a nasal preceding the final consonant: in the weak forms, a nasal simply, adapted in character to the consonant; but in the strong forms expanded to the syllable न ná, which has the accent.
a. In a few of the verbs of the class, the nasal extends also into other tense-systems: they are añj, bhañj, hiṅs: see below, 694.
1. Present Indicative.
684. Examples of inflection: a. the root युज् yuj join: strong stem-form, युनज् yunáj; weak, युञ्ज् yuñj.
For the rules of combination of final j, see 219.
b. the root रुध् rudh obstruct; bases रुणध् ruṇadh and रुन्ध् rundh.
For rules of combination of final dh, see 153, 160.
c. Instead of yun̄kthas, yun̄gdhve, and the like (here and in the impv. and impf.), it is allowed and more usual (231) to write yun̄thas, yun̄dhve, etc.; and, in like manner, rundhas, rundhe, for runddhas, runddhe; and so in other like cases.
685. Vedic irregularities of inflection are: 1. the ordinary use of a 3d sing. mid. like the 1st sing., as vṛñje; 2. the accent on té of 3d pl. mid. in añjaté, indhaté, bhuñjaté.
a. Yunañkṣi, in BhP., is doubtless a false reading.
2. Present Subjunctive.
686. The stem is made, as usual, by adding a to the strong present-stem: thus, yunája, ruṇádha. Below are given as if made from √yujall the forms for which examples have been noted as actually occurring in the older language.
687. The RV. has once añjatas, which is anomalous as being made from the weak tense-stem. Forms with double mode-sign are met with: thus, tṛṇáhān (AV.), rādhnávāt and yunajān (ÇB.); and the only quotable example of 3d du. act. (besides añjatás) is hinásātas (ÇB.). ÇB. has also hinasāvas as 1st du. act.: an elsewhere unexampled form.
3. Present Optative.
688. The optative is made, as elsewhere, by adding the compounded mode-endings to the weak form of present-stem. Thus:
a. AB. has once the anomalous 1st sing. act. vṛñjīyam. And forms like bhuñjīyām -yāt, yuñjīyāt, are here and there met with in the epics (bhuñjīyātām once in GGS.). MBh., too, has once bhuñjītam.
4. Present Imperative.
689. In this class (as the roots all end in consonants) the ending of the 2d sing. act. is always धि dhi.
690. There is no occurrence, so far as noted, of the ending tāt in verbs of this class. The Veda has, as usual, sometimes strong forms, and sometimes the ending tana, in the 2d pl. act.: thus, unátta, yunákta, anaktana, pinaṣṭana.
5. Present Participle.
691. The participles are made in this class as in the preceding ones: thus, act. युञ्जन्त् yuñjánt (fem. युञ्जती yuñjatī́); mid. युञ्जान yuñjāná(but RV. has índhāna).
692. The example of the regular inflection of this tense needs no introduction:
a. The endings s and t are necessarily lost in the nasal class throughout in 2d and 3d sing. act., unless saved at the expense of the final radical consonant: which is a case of very rare occurrence (the only quotable examples were given at 555 a).
693. The Veda shows no irregularities in this tense. Occurrences of augmentless forms are found, especially in 2d and 3d sing. act., showing an accent like that of the present: for example, bhinát, pṛṇák, vṛṇák, piṇák, riṇák.
a. The 1st sing. act. atṛṇam and acchinam (for atṛṇadam and acchinadam) were noted above, at 555 a.
694. The roots of this class number about thirty, more than half of them being found only in the earlier language; no new ones make their first appearance later. Three of them, añj and bhañj and hiṅs, carry their nasal also into other tense-systems than the present. Two, ṛdh and ubh, make present-systems also of other classes having a nasal in the class-sign: thus, ṛdhnoti (nu-class) and ubhnāti (nā-class).
a. Many of the roots make forms from secondary a-stems: thus, from añja, unda, umbhá, chinda, tṛṅhá, piṅṣa, pṛñcá, bhuñja, rundha, çiṅṣá, etc.
Irregularities of the Nasal Class.
695. The root tṛh combines tṛṇah with ti, tu, etc. into tṛṇeḍhi, tṛṇéḍhu; and, according to the grammarians, has also such forms astṛṇehmi: see above, 224 b.
696. The root hiṅs (by origin apparently a desiderative from √han) accents irregularly the root-syllable in the weak forms: thus,híṅsanti, híṅste, híṅsāna (but hinásat etc. and hiṅsyā́t ÇB.).
IV. Nu- and u-classes (fifth and eighth, su- and tan-classes).
697. A. The present-stem of the nu-class is made by adding to the root the syllable नु nu, which then in the strong forms receives the accent, and is strengthened to नो nó.
B. The few roots of the u-class (about half-a-dozen) end in न् n, with the exception of the later irregular कृ kṛ (or kar) — for which, see below, 714. The two classes, then, are closely correspondent in form; and they are wholly accordant in inflection.
a. The u of either class-sign is allowed to be dropped before v and m of the 1st du. and 1st pl. endings, except when the root (nu-class) ends in a consonant; and the u before a vowel-ending becomes v or uv, according as it is preceded by one or by two consonants (129 a).
1. Present Indicative.
698. Examples of inflection: A. nu-class; root सु su press out: strong form of stem,