CHAPTER VII.

CHAPTER VII.    

PRONOUNS.

490. The pronouns differ from the great mass of nouns and adjectives chiefly in that they come by derivation from another and a very limited set of roots, the so-called pronominal or demonstrative roots. But they have also many and marked peculiarities of inflection — some of which, however, find analogies in a few adjectives; and such adjectives will accordingly be described at the end of this chapter.

Personal Pronouns.

491. The pronouns of the first and second persons are the most irregular and peculiar of all, being made up of fragments coming from various roots and combinations of roots. They have no distinction of gender.

a. Their inflection in the later language is as follows:

Singular :

1st pers.

2d pers.

N.

अहम्
 
ahám

त्वम्
 
tvám

A.

माम्, मा
 
mā́m

त्वाम्, त्वा
 
tvā́mtvā

I.

मया
 
máyā

त्वया
 
tváyā

D.

मह्यम्, मे
 
máhyamme

तुभ्यम्, ते
 
túbhyamte

Ab.

मत्
 
mát

त्वत्
 
tvát

G.

मम, मे
 
mámame

तव, ते
 
távate

L.

मयि
 
máyi

त्वयि
 
tváyi

Dual:

N. A. V.

आवाम्
 
āvā́m

युवाम्
 
yuvā́m

I. D. Ab.

आवाभ्याम्
 
āvā́bhyām

युवाभ्याम्
 
yuvā́bhyām

G. L.

आवयोस्
 
āváyos

युवयोस्
 
yuváyos

and A. D. G.

नौ
 
nāu

वाम्
 
vām

Plural:

N.

वयम्
 
vayám

यूयम्
 
yūyám

A.

अस्मान्, नस्
 
asmā́nnas

युष्मान्, वस्
 
yuṣmā́nvas

I.

अस्माभिस्
 
asmā́bhis

युष्माभिस्
 
yuṣmā́bhis

D.

अस्मभ्यम्, नस्
 
asmábhyamnas

युष्मभ्यम्, वस्
 
yuṣmábhyamvas

Ab.

अस्मत्
 
asmát

युष्मत्
 
yuṣmát

G.

अस्माकम्, नस्
 
asmā́kamnas

युष्माकम्, वस्
 
yuṣmā́kamvas

L.

अस्मासु
 
asmāsu

युष्मासु
 
yuṣmāsu

b. The briefer second forms for accus., dat., and gen., in all numbers, are accentless; and hence they are not allowed to stand at the beginning of a sentence, or elsewhere where any emphasis is laid.

c. But they may be qualified by accented adjuncts, as adjectives: e. g. te jáyataḥ of thee when a conquerorvo vṛtā́bhyaḥ for you that were confinednas tribhyáḥ to us three (all RV.).

d. The ablative mat is accentless in one or two AV. passages.

492. Forms of the older language. All the forms given above are found also in the older language; which, however, has also others that afterward disappear from use.

a. Thus, we find a few times the instr. sing. tvā́ (only RV.: like manīṣā́ for manīṣáyā); further, the loc. or dat. sing.  (only VS.) and tvé, and the dat. or loc. pl. asmé (which is by far the commonest of these e-forms) and yuṣmé: their final e is uncombinable (orpragṛhya: 138 b). The VS. makes twice the acc. pl. fem. yuṣmā́s (as if yuṣmā́n were too distinctively a masculine form). The datives inbhyam are in a number of cases written, and in yet others to be read as if written, with bhya, with loss of the final nasal; and in a rare instance or two we have in like manner asmā́ka and yuṣmā́ka in the gen. plural. The usual resolutions of semivowel to vowel are made, and are especially frequent in the forms of the second person (tuám for tvám etc.).

b. But the duals, above all, wear a very different aspect earlier. In Veda and Brāhmaṇa and Sūtra the nominatives are (with occasional exceptions) avam and yuvam, and only the accusatives āvā́m and yuvā́m (but in RV. the dual forms of 1st pers. chance not to occur, unless in vā́m[?], once, for āvám); the instr. in RV. is either yuvā́bhyām (occurs also once in AÇS.) or yuvābhyām; an abl. yuvát appears once in RV., and āvát twice in TS.; the gen.-loc. is in RV. (only) yuvós instead of yuváyos. Thus we have here a distinction (elsewhere unknown) of five different dual cases, by endings in part accordant with those of the other two numbers.

493. Peculiar endings. The ending am, appearing in the nom. sing. and pl. (and Vedic du.) of these pronouns, will be found often, though only in sing., among the other pronouns. The bhyam (or hyam) of dat. sing. and pl. is met with only here; its relationship with thebhyām, bhyas, bhis of the ordinary declension is palpable. The t (or d) of the abl., though here preceded by a short vowel, is doubtless the same with that of the a-declension of nouns and adjectives. That the nom., dat., and abl. endings should be the same in sing. and pl. (and in part in the earlier du. also), only the stem to which they are added being different, is unparalleled elsewhere in the language. The element sma appearing in the plural forms will be found frequent in the inflection of the singular in other pronominal words: in fact, the compound stem asma which underlies the plural of aham seems to be the same that furnishes part of the singular forms of ayam (501), and its value of we to be a specialisation of the meaning these persons. The genitives singular, máma and táva, have no analogies elsewhere; the derivation from them of the adjectives māmaka and tāvaka (below, 516 a) suggests the possibility of their being themselves stereotyped stems. The gen. pl., asmā́kam and yuṣmā́kam, are certainly of this character: namely, neuter sing. case-forms of the adjective stems asmāka and yuṣmāka, other cases of which are found in the Veda.

494. Stem-forms. To the Hindu grammarians, the stems of the personal pronouns are mad and asmad, and tvad and yuṣmad, because these are forms used to a certain extent, and allowed to be indefinitely used, in derivation and composition (like tadkad, etc.: see below, under the other pronouns). Words are thus formed from them even in the older language — namely, mátkṛta and mátsakhi and asmátsakhi(RV.), tvádyoni and mattás (AV.), tvátpitṛ and tvádvivācana (TS.), tvátprasūta and tvaddevatyà and yuvaddevatyà and yuṣmaddevatyà (ÇB.),asmaddevatya (PB.); but much more numerous are those that show the proper stem in a, or with the a lengthened to ā: thus, mā́vant;asmatrā́asmadrúh, etc.; tváyatatvā́vanttvā́dattatvānídtvā́vasutvā́hata, etc.; yuṣmā́dattayuṣméṣita, etc.; yuvā́vantyuvā́ku,yuvádhitayuvā́dattayuvā́nīta, etc. And the later language also has a few words made in the same way, as mādṛç.

a. The Vedas have certain more irregular combinations, with complete forms: thus, tvā́ṁkāmatvāmāhutimāmpaçyámamasatyáasméhiti,ahampūrváahamuttaráahaṁyúahaṁsana.

b. From the stems of the grammarians come also the derivative adjectives madī́yatvadī́yaasmadī́ya yuṣmadī́ya, having a possessive value: see below, 516.

c. For sva and svayám, see below, 513.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

495. The simplest demonstrative,  ta, which answers also the purpose of a personal pronoun of the third person, may be taken as model of a mode of declension usual in so many pronouns and pronominal adjectives that it is fairly to be called the general pronominal declension.

a. But this root has also the special irregularity that in the nom. sing. masc. and fem. it has sás (for whose peculiar euphonic treatment see 176 a,b) and , instead of tás and tā́ (compare Gr. ὁ, ἡ, το, and Goth. sa, so, thata). Thus:

Singular:

m.

n.

f.

N.

सस्
 
sás

तत्
 
tát

सा
 
sā́

A.

तम्
 
tám

तत्
 
tát

ताम्
 
tā́m

I.

तेन
 
téna

तया
 
táyā

D.

तस्मै
 
tásmāi

तस्यै
 
tásyāi

Ab.

तस्मात्
 
tásmāt

तस्यास्
 
tásyās

G.

तस्य
 
tásya

तस्यास्
 
tásyās

L.

तस्मिन्
 
tásmin

तस्याम्
 
tásyām

Dual:

N.A.V.

तौ
 
tāú

ते
 

ते
 

I.D.Ab.

ताभ्याम्
 
tā́bhyām

ताभ्याम्
 
tā́bhyām

G.L.

तयोस्
 
táyos

तयोस्
 
táyos

Plural:

N.

ते
 

तानि
 
tā́ni

तास्
 
tā́s

A.

तान्
 
tā́n

तानि
 
tā́ni

तास्
 
tā́s

I.

तैस्
 
tāís

ताभिस्
 
tā́bhis

D. Ab.

तेभ्यस्
 
tébhyas

ताभ्यस्
 
tā́bhyas

G.

तेषाम्
 
téṣām

तासाम्
 
tā́sām

L.

तेषु
 
téṣu

तासु
 
tā́su

b. The Vedas show no other irregularities of inflection than those which belong to all stems in a and ā: namely, ténā sometimes; usuallytā́ for tāú, du.; often tā́ for tā́ni, pl. neut.; usually tébhis for tāís, instr. pl.; and the ordinary resolutions. The RV. has one more case-form from the root sa, namely sásmin (occurring nearly half as often as tásmin); and ChU. has once sasmāt.

496. The peculiarities of the general pronominal declension, it will be noticed, are these:

a. In the singular, the use of t (properly d) as ending of nom.-acc. neut.; the combination of another element sma with the root in masc. and neut. dat., abl., and loc., and of sy in fem. dat, abl.-gen., and loc.; and the masc. and neut. loc. ending in, which is restricted to this declension (except in the anomalous yādṛ́çmin, RV., once). The substitution in B. of āi for ās as fem. ending (307 h) was illustrated at 365 d.

b. The dual is precisely that of noun-stems in a and ā.

c. In the plural, the irregularities are limited to  for tā́s in nom. masc., and the insertion of s instead of n before ām of the gen., the stem-final being treated before it in the same manner as before su of the loc.

497. The stem of this pronoun is by the grammarians given as tad; and from that form come, in fact, the derivative adjective tadī́ya, with tattvá, tadvat, tanmaya; and numerous compounds, such as tacchīla, tajjña, tatkara, tadanantara, tanmātra, etc. These compounds are not rare even in the Veda: so tádanna, tadvíd, tadvaçá, etc. But derivatives from the true root ta are also many: especially adverbs, astátas, tátra, táthā, tadā́; the adjectives tā́vant and táti; and the compound tādṛ́ç etc.

498. Though the demonstrative root ta is prevailingly of the third person, it is also freely used, both in the earlier language and in the later, as qualifying the pronouns of the first and second person, giving emphasis to them: thus, sò ‘hámthis I, or I here orsā́ tvám thou therete vayamwe heretasya mama of me heretasmiṅs tvayi in thee there, and so on.

499. Two other demonstrative stems appear to contain ta as an element; and both, like the simple ta, substitute sa in the nom. sing. masc. and fem.

a. The one, tya, is tolerably common (although only a third of its possible forms occur) in RV., but rare in AV., and almost unknown later, its nom. sing., in the three genders, is syás, syā́, tyát, and it makes the accusatives tyám, tyā́m, tyát, and goes on through the remaining cases in the same manner as ta. It has in RV. the instr. fem. tyā́ (for tyáyā). Instead of syā as nom. sing. fem. is also found tyā.

b. The other is the usual demonstrative of nearer position, this here, and is in frequent use through all periods of the language. It prefixes e to the simple root, forming the nominatives eṣás, eṣā́, etát — and so on through the whole inflection.

c. The stem tya has neither compounds nor derivatives. But from eta are formed both, in the same manner as from the simple ta, only much less numerous: thus, etaddā́ (ÇB.), etadartha, etc., from the so-called stem etat; and etādṛ́ç and etā́vant from eta. And eṣa, like sa(498), is used to qualify pronouns of the 1st and 2d persons: e. g. eṣā ’ham, ete vayam.

500. There is a defective pronominal stem, ena, which is accentless, and hence used only in situations where no emphasis falls upon it. It does not occur elsewhere than in the accusative of all numbers, the instr. sing., and the gen.-loc. dual: thus,

m.

n.

f.

Sing.

A.

enam

enat

enām

I.

enena

enayā

Du.

A.

enāu

ene

ene

G. L.

enayos

enayos

Pl.

A.

enān

enāni

enās

a. The RV. has enos instead of enayos, and in one or two instances accents a form: thus, enā́m, enā́s (?). AB. uses enat also as nom. neut.

b. As ena is always used substantively, it has more nearly than ta the value of a third personal pronoun, unemphatic. Apparent examples of its adjectival use here and there met with are doubtless the result of confusion with eta (499 b).

c. This stem forms neither derivatives nor compounds.

501. The declension of two other demonstratives is so irregularly made up that they have to be given in full. The one, अयम् ayám etc., is used as a more indefinite demonstrative, this or that; the other, असौ asāú etc., signifies especially the remoter relation, yon oryonder.

a. They are as follows: Singular:

m.

n.

f.

m.

n.

f.

N.

अयम्
 
ayám

इदम्
 
idám

इयम्
 
iyám

असौ
 
asāú

अदस्
 
adás

असौ
 
asāú

A.

इमम्
 
imám

इदम्
 
idám

इमाम्
 
imām

अमुम्
 
amúm

अदस्
 
adás

अमूम्
 
amū́m

I.

अनेन
 
anéna

अनया
 
anáyā

अमुना
 
amúnā

अमुया
 
amúyā

D.

अस्मै
 
asmāí

अस्यै
 
asyāí

अमुष्मै
 
amúṣmāi

अमुष्यै
 
amúṣyāi

Ab.

अस्मात्
 
asmā́t

अस्यास्
 
asyā́s

अमुष्मात्
 
amúṣmāt

अमुष्यास्
 
amúṣyās

G.

अस्य
 
asyá

अस्यास्
 
asyā́s

अमुष्य
 
amúṣya

अमुष्यास्
 
amúṣyās

L.

अस्मिन्
 
asmín

अस्याम्
 
asyā́m

अमुस्मिन्
 
amúsmin

अमुस्याम्
 
amúsyām

Dual:

N. A.

इमौ
 
imāú

इमे
 
imé

इमे
 
imé

अमू
 
amū́

I. D. Ab.

आभ्याम्
 
ābhyā́m

अमूभ्याम्
 
amū́bhyām

G. L.

अनयोस्
 
anáyos

अमुयोस्
 
amúyos

Plural:

N.

इमे
 
imé

इमानि
 
imā́ni

इमास्
 
imā́s

अमी
 
amī́

अमूनि
 
amū́ni

अमूस्
 
amū́s

A.

इमान्
 
imā́n

इमानि
 
imā́ni

इमास्
 
imā́s

अमून्
 
amū́n

अमूनि
 
amū́ni

अमूस्
 
amū́s

I.

एभिस्
 
ebhís

आभिस्
 
ābhís

अमीभिस्
 
amī́bhis

अमूभिस्
 
amū́bhis

D. Ab.

एभ्यस्
 
ebhyás

आभ्यस्
 
ābhyás

अमीभ्यस्
 
amī́bhyas

अमूभ्यस्
 
amū́bhyas

G.

एषाम्
 
eṣā́m

आसाम्
 
āsā́m

अमीषाम्
 
amī́ṣām

अमूषाम्
 
amū́ṣām

L.

एषु
 
eṣú

आसु
 
āsú

अमीषु
 
amī́ṣu

अमूषु
 
amū́ṣu

b. The same forms are used in the older language, without variation, except that (as usual) imā́ occurs for imāú and imā́ni, and amū́ foramū́niamuyā when used adverbially is accented on the final, amuyā́asāu (with accent, of course, on the first, ásāu; or without accent, asāu: 314) is used also as vocative; amī, too, occurs as vocative.

502. a. The former of these two pronouns, ayám etc., plainly shows itself to be pieced together from a number of defective stems. The majority of forms come from the root a, with which, as in the ordinary pronominal declension, sma (f. sy) is combined in the singular. All these forms from a have the peculiarity that in their substantive use they are either accented, as in the paradigm, or accentless (like ena and the second forms from ahám and tvám). The remaining forms are always accented. From aná come, with entire regularity,anénaanáyāanáyos. The strong cases in dual and plural, and in part in singular, come not less regularly from a stem imá. And ayám,iyámidám are evidently to be referred to a simple root i (idám being apparently a double form: id, like tad etc., with ending am).

b. The Veda has from the root a also the instrumental enā́ and ayā́ (used in general adverbially), and the gen. loc. du. ayós; from ima,imásya occurs once in RV., imasmāi in AA., and imāis and imeṣu later. The RV. has in a small number of instances the irregular accentuation ásmāiásyaā́bhis.

c. In analogy with the other pronouns, idám is by the grammarians regarded as representative stem of this pronominal declension; and it is actually found so treated in a very small number of compounds (idammáya and idáṁrūpa are of Brāhmaṇa age). As regards the actual stems, ana furnishes nothing further; from ima comes only the adverb imáthā (RV., once); but a and i furnish a number of derivatives, mostly adverbial: thus, for example, átasátraáthaad-dhā́(?); itásíd (Vedic particle), idāiháítaraīm (Vedic particle),īdṛ́ç, perhaps evá and evám, and others.

503. The other pronoun, asāú etc., has amú for its leading stem, which in the singular takes in combination, like the a-stems, the element sma (f. sy), and which shifts to amī in part of the masc. and neut. plural. In part, too, like an adjective u-stem, it lengthens its final in the feminine. The gen. sing, amúṣya is the only example in the language of the ending sya added to any other than an a-stem. The nom. pl. amī́ is unique in form; its ī is (like that of a dual) pragṛhya, or exempt from combination with a following vowel (138 b). Asāú and adás are also without analogies as regards their endings.

a. The grammarians, as usual, treat adás as representative stem of the declension, and it is found in this character in an extremely small number of words, as adomūlaadomáya is of Brāhmaṇa age. The ÇB. has also asāunā́man. But most of the derivatives, as of the cases, come from amu: thus, amútas, amútra, amúthā, amudā, amúrhi, amuvát, amuka.

b. In the older language occurs the root tva (accentless), meaning one, many a one; it is oftenest found repeated, as one and another. It follows the ordinary pronominal declension. From it is made the (also accentless) adverb tvadānīm (MS.).

c. Fragments of another demonstrative root or two are met with: thus, ámas he occurs in a formula in AV. and in Brāhmaṇas etc.; avós as gen.-loc. dual is found in RV.; the particle u points to a root u.

Interrogative Pronoun.

504. The characteristic part of the interrogative pronominal root is क् k; it has the three forms  ka, कि ki, कु ku; but the whole declensional inflection is from  ka, excepting the nom.-acc. sing. neut., which is from कि ki, and has the anomalous form किम् kím(not elsewhere known in the language from a neuter i-stem). The nom. and accus. sing., then, are as follows:

m.

n.

f.

N.

कस्
 
kás

किम्
 
kím

का
 
kā́

A.

कम्
 
kám

किम्
 
kím

काम्
 
kā́m

and the rest of the declension is precisely like that of  ta (above, 495).

a. The Veda has its usual variations, kā́ and kébhis for kā́ni and kāís. It also has, along with kím, the pronominally regular neuterkád; and kám (or kam) is a frequent particle. The masc. form kis, corresponding to kim, occurs as a stereotyped case in the combinationsnákis and mā́kis.

505. The grammarians treat kim as representative stem of the interrogative pronoun; and it is in fact so used in a not large number of words, of which a few — kimmáya, kiṁkará, kiṁkāmyā́, kíṁdevata, kiṁçīlá, and the peculiar kiṁyú — go back even to the Veda andBrāhmaṇa. In closer analogy with the other pronouns, the form kad, a couple of times in the Veda (katpayá, kádartha), and not infrequently later, is found as first member of compounds. Then, from the real roots ka, ki, ku are made many derivatives; and from kiand ku, especially the latter, many compounds: thus, káti, kathā́, kathám, kadā́, katará, katamá, kárhi; kíyant, kīdṛ́ç; kútas, kútra, kúha, kvà, kucará, kukarman, kumantrin, etc.

506. Various forms of this pronoun, as kad, kim, and ku (and, rarely, ko), at the beginning of compounds, have passed from an interrogative meaning, through an exclamatory, to the value of prefixes signifying an unusual quality — either something admirable, or, oftener, something contemptible. This use begins in the Veda, but becomes much more common in later time.

507. The interrogative pronoun, as in other languages, turns readily in its independent use also to an exclamatory meaning. Moreover, it is by various added particles converted to an indefinite meaning: thus, by ca, caná, cid, ápi, vā, either alone or with the relative ya(below, 511) prefixed: thus, káç caná any onená kó ‘pi not any oneyā́ni kā́ni cit whatsoeveryatamát katamác ca whatever one. Occasionally, the interrogative by itself acquires a similar value.

Relative Pronoun.

508. The root of the relative pronoun is  ya, which from the earliest period of the language has lost all trace of the demonstrative meaning originally (doubtless) belonging to it, and is used as relative only.

509. It is inflected with entire regularity according to the usual pronominal declension: thus,

 

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

m.

n.

f.

m.

n.

f.

m.

n.

f.

N.

यस्
 
yás

यत्
 
yát

या
 
yā́

यौ
 
yāú

ये
 

ये
 

ये
 

यानि
 
yā́ni

यास्
 
yā́s

A.

याम्
 
yā́m

यत्
 
yát

याम्
 
yā́m

यान्
 
yā́n

यानि
 
yā́ni

यास्
 
yā́s

I.

येन
 
yéna

यया
 
yáyā

याभ्याम्
 
yā́bhyām

यैस्
 
yāís

याभिस्
 
yā́bhis

D.

यस्मै
 
yásmāi

यस्यै
 
yásyāi

येभ्यस्
 
yébhyas

याभ्यस्
 
yā́bhyas

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

a. The Veda shows its usual variations of these forms: yā́ for yāú and for yā́ni, and yébhis for yāísyós for yáyos also occurs once;yénā, with prolonged final, is in RV. twice as common as yéna. Resolutions occur in yā́bhias, and yéṣaam and yā́saam. The conjunction yā́tis an ablative form according to the ordinary declension.

510. The use of yát as representative stem begins very early: we have yátkāma in the Veda, and yatkārínyaddevatyà in the Brāhmaṇa; later it grows more general. From the proper root come also a considerable series of derivatives: yátas, yáti, yátra, yáthā, yádā, yádi, yárhi, yā́vant, yatará, yatamá; and the compound yādṛ́ç.

511. The combination of ya with ka to make an indefinite pronoun has been noticed above (507). Its own repetition — as yád-yat — gives it sometimes a like meaning, won through the distributive.

512. One or two marked peculiarities in the Sanskrit use of the relative may be here briefly noticed:

a. A very decided preference for putting the relative clause before that to which it relates: thus, yáḥ sunvatáḥ sákhā tásmā índrāya gāyata (RV.) who is the friend of the soma-presser, to that Indra sing yeyáṁ yajñám paribhū́r ási sá íd devéṣu gacchati (RV.) what offering thou protectest, that in truth goeth to the godsyé triṣaptā́ḥ pariyánti bálā téṣāṁ dadhātu me (AV.) what thrice seven go about, their strength may he assign to measāú yó adharā́d gṛhás tátra santv arāyyàḥ (AV.) what house is yonder in the depth, there, let the witches besahá yán me ásti téna (TB.) along with that which is minehaṅsānāṃ vacanaṁ yat tu tan māṁ dahati (MBh.) but what the words of the swans were, that burns mesarvasya locanaṁ çāstraṁ yasya nā ’sty andha eva saḥ (H.) who does not possess learning, the eye of everything, blind indeed is he. The other arrangement, though frequent enough, is notably less usual.

b. A frequent conversion of the subject or object of a verb by an added relative into a substantive clause: thus, mé ’mám prā́ ”pat pāúruṣeyo vadhó yáḥ (AV.) may there not reach him a human deadly weapon (lit'ly, what is such a weapon); pári ṇo pāhi yád dhánam (AV.)protect of us what wealth [there is]; apāmārgó ‘pa mārṣṭu kṣetriyáṃ çapáthaç ca yáh (AV.) may the cleansing plant cleanse away the disease and the cursepuṣkareṇa hṛtaṃ rājyaṁ yac cā ’nyad vasu kiṁcana (MBh.) by Pushkara was taken away the kingdom and whatever other property [there was].

Other Pronouns: Emphatic, Indefinite.

513. a. The isolated and uninflected pronominal word स्वयम् svayam (from the root sva) signifies self, own self. By its form it appears to be a nom. sing., and it is oftenest used as nominative, but along with words of all persons and numbers; and not seldom it represents other cases also.

b. Svayam is also used as a stem in composition: thus, svayaṁjā́svayambhū́. But sva itself (usually adjective: below, 516 e) has the same value in composition; and even its inflected forms are (in the older language very rarely) used as reflexive pronoun.

c. In RV. alone are found a few examples of two indefinite pronouns, sama (accentless) any, every, and simá every, all.

Nouns used pronominally.

514. a. The noun ātmán soul is widely employed, in the singular (extremely rarely in other numbers), as reflexive pronoun of all three persons.

b. The noun tanū́ body is employed in the same manner (but in all numbers) in the Veda.

c. The adjective bhavant, f. bhavatī, is used (as already pointed out: 456) in respectful address as substitute for the pronoun of the second person. Its construction with the verb is in accordance with its true character, as a word of the third person.

Pronominal Derivatives.

515. From pronominal roots and stems, as well as from the larger class of roots and from noun-stems, are formed by the ordinary suffixes of adjective derivation certain words and classes of words, which have thus the character of pronominal adjectives.

Some of the more important of these may be briefly noticed here.

516. Possessives. a. From the representative stems mad etc. are formed the adjectives madīyaasmadīyatvadīyayuṣmadīyatadīya, andetadīya, which are used in a possessive sense: relating to me, mine, and so on.

b. Other possessives are māmaká (also māmaka, RV.) and tāvaká, from the genitives máma and táva. And RV. has once mā́kīna.

c. An analogous derivative from the genitive amúṣya is āmuṣyāyaṇá (AV. etc.) descendant of such and such a one.

d. It was pointed out above (493) that the "genitives" asmā́kam and yuṣmā́kam are really stereotyped cases of possessive adjectives.

e. Corresponding to svayám (513) is the possessive svá, meaning own, as relating to all persons and numbers. The RV. has once the corresponding simple possessive of the second person, tvá thy.

f. For the use of sva as reflexive pronoun, see above, 513 b.

g. All these words form their feminines in ā.

h. Other derivatives of a like value have no claim to be mentioned here. But (excepting sva) the possessives are so rarely used as to make but a small figure in the language, which prefers generally to indicate the possessive relation by the genitive case of the pronoun itself.

517. By the suffix vant are formed from the pronominal roots, with prolongation of their final vowels, the adjectives mā́vant, tvā́vant, yuṣmā́vant, yuvā́vant, tā́vant, etā́vant, yā́vant, meaning of my sort, like me, etc. Of these, however, only the last three are in use in the later language, in the sense of tantus and quantus. They are inflected like other adjective stems in vant, making their feminines invatī (452 ff.).

a. Words of similar meaning from the roots i and ki are íyant and kíyant, inflected in the same manner: see above, 451.

518. The pronominal roots show a like prolongation of vowel in combination with the root dṛç see, look, and its derivatives -dṛça and (quite rarely) dṛkṣa: thus, mādṛç, -dṛça; tvādṛç, -dṛça; yuṣmādṛç, -dṛça; tādṛç, -dfta, -dṛkṣa; etādṛç, -dṛça, -dṛkṣa; yādṛç, -dṛça; īdṛ́ç, -dṛ́ça, -dṛ́kṣa; kīdṛ́ç, -dṛça, -dṛkṣa. They mean of my sort, like or resembling me, and the like, and tādṛç and the following are not uncommon, with the sense of talis and qualis. The forms in dṛç are unvaried for gender; those in dṛça (and dṛkṣa?) have feminines in ī.

519. From ta, ka, ya come táti so manykáti how many? yáti as many. They have a quasi-numeral character, and are inflected (like the numerals páñca etc.: above, 483) only in the plural, and with the bare stem as nom. and accus.: thus, N.A. táti; I. etc. tátibhis, tátibhyas, tátīnām, tátiṣu.

520. From ya (in V. and B.) and ka come the comparatives and superlatives yatará and yatamá, and katará and katamá; and from i, the comparative ítara. For their inflection, see below, 523.

521. Derivatives with the suffix ka, sometimes conveying a diminutive or a contemptuous meaning, are made from certain of the pronominal roots and stems (and may, according to the grammarians, be made from them all): thus, from ta, takám, takát, takā́s; from sa, sakā́; fromya, yakás, yakā́, yaké; from asāú, asakāú; from amu, amuka.

a. For the numerous and frequently used adverbs formed from pronominal roots, see Adverbs (below, 1097 ff.).

Adjectives declined pronominally.

522. A number of adjectives — some of them coming from pronominal roots, others more or less analogous with pronouns in use — are inflected, in part or wholly, according to the pronominal declension (like  ta, 495), with feminine stems in ā. Thus:

523. The comparatives and superlatives from pronominal roots — namely, katará and katamá, yatará and yatamá, and ítara; also anyáother, and its comparative anyatará — are declined like ta throughout.

a. But even from these words forms made according to the adjective declension are sporadically met with (e. g. itarāyām K.).

b. Anya takes occasionally the form anyat in composition: thus, anyatkāma, anyatsthāna.

524. Other words are so inflected except in the nom.-acc.-voc. sing, neut., where they have the ordinary adjective form am, instead of the pronominal at (ad). Such are sárva allvíçva all, everyéka one.

a. These, also, are not without exception, at least in the earlier language (e. g. víçvāya, víçvāt, víçve RV.; éke loc. sing., AV.).

525. Yet other words follow the same model usually, or in some of their significations, or optionally; but in other senses, or without known rule, lapse into the adjective inflection.

a. Such are the comparatives and superlatives from prepositional stems: ádhara and adhamá, ántara and ántama, ápara and apamá, ávara andavamá, úttara and uttamá, úpara and upamá. Of these, pronominal forms are decidedly more numerous from the comparatives than from the superlatives.

b. Further, the superlatives (without corresponding comparatives) paramá, caramá, madhyamá also anyatama (whose positive and comparative belong to the class first mentioned: 523).

c. Further, the words pára distant, otherpū́rva prior, eastdákṣiṇa right, southpaçcima behind, westernubháya (f. ubháyī orubhayī́of both kinds or partiesnéma the one, half; and the possessive svá.

526. Occasional forms of the pronominal declension are met with from numeral adjectives: e. g. prathamásyās, tṛtī́yasyām; and from other words having an indefinite numeral character: thus, álpa fewardhá halfkévala alldvítaya of the two kindsbā́hya outside — and others. RV. has once samānásmāt.

 

PRONOUNS.

490. The pronouns differ from the great mass of nouns and adjectives chiefly in that they come by derivation from another and a very limited set of roots, the so-called pronominal or demonstrative roots. But they have also many and marked peculiarities of inflection — some of which, however, find analogies in a few adjectives; and such adjectives will accordingly be described at the end of this chapter.

Personal Pronouns.

491. The pronouns of the first and second persons are the most irregular and peculiar of all, being made up of fragments coming from various roots and combinations of roots. They have no distinction of gender.

a. Their inflection in the later language is as follows:

Singular :

1st pers.

2d pers.

N.

अहम्
 
ahám

त्वम्
 
tvám

A.

माम्, मा
 
mā́m

त्वाम्, त्वा
 
tvā́mtvā

I.

मया
 
máyā

त्वया
 
tváyā

D.

मह्यम्, मे
 
máhyamme

तुभ्यम्, ते
 
túbhyamte

Ab.

मत्
 
mát

त्वत्
 
tvát

G.

मम, मे
 
mámame

तव, ते
 
távate

L.

मयि
 
máyi

त्वयि
 
tváyi

Dual:

N. A. V.

आवाम्
 
āvā́m

युवाम्
 
yuvā́m

I. D. Ab.

आवाभ्याम्
 
āvā́bhyām

युवाभ्याम्
 
yuvā́bhyām

G. L.

आवयोस्
 
āváyos

युवयोस्
 
yuváyos

and A. D. G.

नौ
 
nāu

वाम्
 
vām

Plural:

N.

वयम्
 
vayám

यूयम्
 
yūyám

A.

अस्मान्, नस्
 
asmā́nnas

युष्मान्, वस्
 
yuṣmā́nvas

I.

अस्माभिस्
 
asmā́bhis

युष्माभिस्
 
yuṣmā́bhis

D.

अस्मभ्यम्, नस्
 
asmábhyamnas

युष्मभ्यम्, वस्
 
yuṣmábhyamvas

Ab.

अस्मत्
 
asmát

युष्मत्
 
yuṣmát

G.

अस्माकम्, नस्
 
asmā́kamnas

युष्माकम्, वस्
 
yuṣmā́kamvas

L.

अस्मासु
 
asmāsu

युष्मासु
 
yuṣmāsu

b. The briefer second forms for accus., dat., and gen., in all numbers, are accentless; and hence they are not allowed to stand at the beginning of a sentence, or elsewhere where any emphasis is laid.

c. But they may be qualified by accented adjuncts, as adjectives: e. g. te jáyataḥ of thee when a conquerorvo vṛtā́bhyaḥ for you that were confinednas tribhyáḥ to us three (all RV.).

d. The ablative mat is accentless in one or two AV. passages.

492. Forms of the older language. All the forms given above are found also in the older language; which, however, has also others that afterward disappear from use.

a. Thus, we find a few times the instr. sing. tvā́ (only RV.: like manīṣā́ for manīṣáyā); further, the loc. or dat. sing.  (only VS.) and tvé, and the dat. or loc. pl. asmé (which is by far the commonest of these e-forms) and yuṣmé: their final e is uncombinable (orpragṛhya: 138 b). The VS. makes twice the acc. pl. fem. yuṣmā́s (as if yuṣmā́n were too distinctively a masculine form). The datives inbhyam are in a number of cases written, and in yet others to be read as if written, with bhya, with loss of the final nasal; and in a rare instance or two we have in like manner asmā́ka and yuṣmā́ka in the gen. plural. The usual resolutions of semivowel to vowel are made, and are especially frequent in the forms of the second person (tuám for tvám etc.).

b. But the duals, above all, wear a very different aspect earlier. In Veda and Brāhmaṇa and Sūtra the nominatives are (with occasional exceptions) avam and yuvam, and only the accusatives āvā́m and yuvā́m (but in RV. the dual forms of 1st pers. chance not to occur, unless in vā́m[?], once, for āvám); the instr. in RV. is either yuvā́bhyām (occurs also once in AÇS.) or yuvābhyām; an abl. yuvát appears once in RV., and āvát twice in TS.; the gen.-loc. is in RV. (only) yuvós instead of yuváyos. Thus we have here a distinction (elsewhere unknown) of five different dual cases, by endings in part accordant with those of the other two numbers.

493. Peculiar endings. The ending am, appearing in the nom. sing. and pl. (and Vedic du.) of these pronouns, will be found often, though only in sing., among the other pronouns. The bhyam (or hyam) of dat. sing. and pl. is met with only here; its relationship with thebhyām, bhyas, bhis of the ordinary declension is palpable. The t (or d) of the abl., though here preceded by a short vowel, is doubtless the same with that of the a-declension of nouns and adjectives. That the nom., dat., and abl. endings should be the same in sing. and pl. (and in part in the earlier du. also), only the stem to which they are added being different, is unparalleled elsewhere in the language. The element sma appearing in the plural forms will be found frequent in the inflection of the singular in other pronominal words: in fact, the compound stem asma which underlies the plural of aham seems to be the same that furnishes part of the singular forms of ayam (501), and its value of we to be a specialisation of the meaning these persons. The genitives singular, máma and táva, have no analogies elsewhere; the derivation from them of the adjectives māmaka and tāvaka (below, 516 a) suggests the possibility of their being themselves stereotyped stems. The gen. pl., asmā́kam and yuṣmā́kam, are certainly of this character: namely, neuter sing. case-forms of the adjective stems asmāka and yuṣmāka, other cases of which are found in the Veda.

494. Stem-forms. To the Hindu grammarians, the stems of the personal pronouns are mad and asmad, and tvad and yuṣmad, because these are forms used to a certain extent, and allowed to be indefinitely used, in derivation and composition (like tadkad, etc.: see below, under the other pronouns). Words are thus formed from them even in the older language — namely, mátkṛta and mátsakhi and asmátsakhi(RV.), tvádyoni and mattás (AV.), tvátpitṛ and tvádvivācana (TS.), tvátprasūta and tvaddevatyà and yuvaddevatyà and yuṣmaddevatyà (ÇB.),asmaddevatya (PB.); but much more numerous are those that show the proper stem in a, or with the a lengthened to ā: thus, mā́vant;asmatrā́asmadrúh, etc.; tváyatatvā́vanttvā́dattatvānídtvā́vasutvā́hata, etc.; yuṣmā́dattayuṣméṣita, etc.; yuvā́vantyuvā́ku,yuvádhitayuvā́dattayuvā́nīta, etc. And the later language also has a few words made in the same way, as mādṛç.

a. The Vedas have certain more irregular combinations, with complete forms: thus, tvā́ṁkāmatvāmāhutimāmpaçyámamasatyáasméhiti,ahampūrváahamuttaráahaṁyúahaṁsana.

b. From the stems of the grammarians come also the derivative adjectives madī́yatvadī́yaasmadī́ya yuṣmadī́ya, having a possessive value: see below, 516.

c. For sva and svayám, see below, 513.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

495. The simplest demonstrative,  ta, which answers also the purpose of a personal pronoun of the third person, may be taken as model of a mode of declension usual in so many pronouns and pronominal adjectives that it is fairly to be called the general pronominal declension.

a. But this root has also the special irregularity that in the nom. sing. masc. and fem. it has sás (for whose peculiar euphonic treatment see 176 a,b) and , instead of tás and tā́ (compare Gr. ὁ, ἡ, το, and Goth. sa, so, thata). Thus:

Singular:

m.

n.

f.

N.

सस्
 
sás

तत्
 
tát

सा
 
sā́

A.

तम्
 
tám

तत्
 
tát

ताम्
 
tā́m

I.

तेन
 
téna

तया
 
táyā

D.

तस्मै
 
tásmāi

तस्यै
 
tásyāi

Ab.

तस्मात्
 
tásmāt

तस्यास्
 
tásyās

G.

तस्य
 
tásya

तस्यास्
 
tásyās

L.

तस्मिन्
 
tásmin

तस्याम्
 
tásyām

Dual:

N.A.V.

तौ
 
tāú

ते
 

ते
 

I.D.Ab.

ताभ्याम्
 
tā́bhyām

ताभ्याम्
 
tā́bhyām

G.L.

तयोस्
 
táyos

तयोस्
 
táyos

Plural:

N.

ते
 

तानि
 
tā́ni

तास्
 
tā́s

A.

तान्
 
tā́n

तानि
 
tā́ni

तास्
 
tā́s

I.

तैस्
 
tāís

ताभिस्
 
tā́bhis

D. Ab.

तेभ्यस्
 
tébhyas

ताभ्यस्
 
tā́bhyas

G.

तेषाम्
 
téṣām

तासाम्
 
tā́sām

L.

तेषु
 
téṣu

तासु
 
tā́su

b. The Vedas show no other irregularities of inflection than those which belong to all stems in a and ā: namely, ténā sometimes; usuallytā́ for tāú, du.; often tā́ for tā́ni, pl. neut.; usually tébhis for tāís, instr. pl.; and the ordinary resolutions. The RV. has one more case-form from the root sa, namely sásmin (occurring nearly half as often as tásmin); and ChU. has once sasmāt.

496. The peculiarities of the general pronominal declension, it will be noticed, are these:

a. In the singular, the use of t (properly d) as ending of nom.-acc. neut.; the combination of another element sma with the root in masc. and neut. dat., abl., and loc., and of sy in fem. dat, abl.-gen., and loc.; and the masc. and neut. loc. ending in, which is restricted to this declension (except in the anomalous yādṛ́çmin, RV., once). The substitution in B. of āi for ās as fem. ending (307 h) was illustrated at 365 d.

b. The dual is precisely that of noun-stems in a and ā.

c. In the plural, the irregularities are limited to  for tā́s in nom. masc., and the insertion of s instead of n before ām of the gen., the stem-final being treated before it in the same manner as before su of the loc.

497. The stem of this pronoun is by the grammarians given as tad; and from that form come, in fact, the derivative adjective tadī́ya, with tattvá, tadvat, tanmaya; and numerous compounds, such as tacchīla, tajjña, tatkara, tadanantara, tanmātra, etc. These compounds are not rare even in the Veda: so tádanna, tadvíd, tadvaçá, etc. But derivatives from the true root ta are also many: especially adverbs, astátas, tátra, táthā, tadā́; the adjectives tā́vant and táti; and the compound tādṛ́ç etc.

498. Though the demonstrative root ta is prevailingly of the third person, it is also freely used, both in the earlier language and in the later, as qualifying the pronouns of the first and second person, giving emphasis to them: thus, sò ‘hámthis I, or I here orsā́ tvám thou therete vayamwe heretasya mama of me heretasmiṅs tvayi in thee there, and so on.

499. Two other demonstrative stems appear to contain ta as an element; and both, like the simple ta, substitute sa in the nom. sing. masc. and fem.

a. The one, tya, is tolerably common (although only a third of its possible forms occur) in RV., but rare in AV., and almost unknown later, its nom. sing., in the three genders, is syás, syā́, tyát, and it makes the accusatives tyám, tyā́m, tyát, and goes on through the remaining cases in the same manner as ta. It has in RV. the instr. fem. tyā́ (for tyáyā). Instead of syā as nom. sing. fem. is also found tyā.

b. The other is the usual demonstrative of nearer position, this here, and is in frequent use through all periods of the language. It prefixes e to the simple root, forming the nominatives eṣás, eṣā́, etát — and so on through the whole inflection.

c. The stem tya has neither compounds nor derivatives. But from eta are formed both, in the same manner as from the simple ta, only much less numerous: thus, etaddā́ (ÇB.), etadartha, etc., from the so-called stem etat; and etādṛ́ç and etā́vant from eta. And eṣa, like sa(498), is used to qualify pronouns of the 1st and 2d persons: e. g. eṣā ’ham, ete vayam.

500. There is a defective pronominal stem, ena, which is accentless, and hence used only in situations where no emphasis falls upon it. It does not occur elsewhere than in the accusative of all numbers, the instr. sing., and the gen.-loc. dual: thus,

m.

n.

f.

Sing.

A.

enam

enat

enām

I.

enena

enayā

Du.

A.

enāu

ene

ene

G. L.

enayos

enayos

Pl.

A.

enān

enāni

enās

a. The RV. has enos instead of enayos, and in one or two instances accents a form: thus, enā́m, enā́s (?). AB. uses enat also as nom. neut.

b. As ena is always used substantively, it has more nearly than ta the value of a third personal pronoun, unemphatic. Apparent examples of its adjectival use here and there met with are doubtless the result of confusion with eta (499 b).

c. This stem forms neither derivatives nor compounds.

501. The declension of two other demonstratives is so irregularly made up that they have to be given in full. The one, अयम् ayám etc., is used as a more indefinite demonstrative, this or that; the other, असौ asāú etc., signifies especially the remoter relation, yon oryonder.

a. They are as follows: Singular:

m.

n.

f.

m.

n.

f.

N.

अयम्
 
ayám

इदम्
 
idám

इयम्
 
iyám

असौ
 
asāú

अदस्
 
adás

असौ
 
asāú

A.

इमम्
 
imám

इदम्
 
idám

इमाम्
 
imām

अमुम्
 
amúm

अदस्
 
adás

अमूम्
 
amū́m

I.

अनेन
 
anéna

अनया
 
anáyā

अमुना
 
amúnā

अमुया
 
amúyā

D.

अस्मै
 
asmāí

अस्यै
 
asyāí

अमुष्मै
 
amúṣmāi

अमुष्यै
 
amúṣyāi

Ab.

अस्मात्
 
asmā́t

अस्यास्
 
asyā́s

अमुष्मात्
 
amúṣmāt

अमुष्यास्
 
amúṣyās

G.

अस्य
 
asyá

अस्यास्
 
asyā́s

अमुष्य
 
amúṣya

अमुष्यास्
 
amúṣyās

L.

अस्मिन्
 
asmín

अस्याम्
 
asyā́m

अमुस्मिन्
 
amúsmin

अमुस्याम्
 
amúsyām

Dual:

N. A.

इमौ
 
imāú

इमे
 
imé

इमे
 
imé

अमू
 
amū́

I. D. Ab.

आभ्याम्
 
ābhyā́m

अमूभ्याम्
 
amū́bhyām

G. L.

अनयोस्
 
anáyos

अमुयोस्
 
amúyos

Plural:

N.

इमे
 
imé

इमानि
 
imā́ni

इमास्
 
imā́s

अमी
 
amī́

अमूनि
 
amū́ni

अमूस्
 
amū́s

A.

इमान्
 
imā́n

इमानि
 
imā́ni

इमास्
 
imā́s

अमून्
 
amū́n

अमूनि
 
amū́ni

अमूस्
 
amū́s

I.

एभिस्
 
ebhís

आभिस्
 
ābhís

अमीभिस्
 
amī́bhis

अमूभिस्
 
amū́bhis

D. Ab.

एभ्यस्
 
ebhyás

आभ्यस्
 
ābhyás

अमीभ्यस्
 
amī́bhyas

अमूभ्यस्
 
amū́bhyas

G.

एषाम्
 
eṣā́m

आसाम्
 
āsā́m

अमीषाम्
 
amī́ṣām

अमूषाम्
 
amū́ṣām

L.

एषु
 
eṣú

आसु
 
āsú

अमीषु
 
amī́ṣu

अमूषु
 
amū́ṣu

b. The same forms are used in the older language, without variation, except that (as usual) imā́ occurs for imāú and imā́ni, and amū́ foramū́niamuyā when used adverbially is accented on the final, amuyā́asāu (with accent, of course, on the first, ásāu; or without accent, asāu: 314) is used also as vocative; amī, too, occurs as vocative.

502. a. The former of these two pronouns, ayám etc., plainly shows itself to be pieced together from a number of defective stems. The majority of forms come from the root a, with which, as in the ordinary pronominal declension, sma (f. sy) is combined in the singular. All these forms from a have the peculiarity that in their substantive use they are either accented, as in the paradigm, or accentless (like ena and the second forms from ahám and tvám). The remaining forms are always accented. From aná come, with entire regularity,anénaanáyāanáyos. The strong cases in dual and plural, and in part in singular, come not less regularly from a stem imá. And ayám,iyámidám are evidently to be referred to a simple root i (idám being apparently a double form: id, like tad etc., with ending am).

b. The Veda has from the root a also the instrumental enā́ and ayā́ (used in general adverbially), and the gen. loc. du. ayós; from ima,imásya occurs once in RV., imasmāi in AA., and imāis and imeṣu later. The RV. has in a small number of instances the irregular accentuation ásmāiásyaā́bhis.

c. In analogy with the other pronouns, idám is by the grammarians regarded as representative stem of this pronominal declension; and it is actually found so treated in a very small number of compounds (idammáya and idáṁrūpa are of Brāhmaṇa age). As regards the actual stems, ana furnishes nothing further; from ima comes only the adverb imáthā (RV., once); but a and i furnish a number of derivatives, mostly adverbial: thus, for example, átasátraáthaad-dhā́(?); itásíd (Vedic particle), idāiháítaraīm (Vedic particle),īdṛ́ç, perhaps evá and evám, and others.

503. The other pronoun, asāú etc., has amú for its leading stem, which in the singular takes in combination, like the a-stems, the element sma (f. sy), and which shifts to amī in part of the masc. and neut. plural. In part, too, like an adjective u-stem, it lengthens its final in the feminine. The gen. sing, amúṣya is the only example in the language of the ending sya added to any other than an a-stem. The nom. pl. amī́ is unique in form; its ī is (like that of a dual) pragṛhya, or exempt from combination with a following vowel (138 b). Asāú and adás are also without analogies as regards their endings.

a. The grammarians, as usual, treat adás as representative stem of the declension, and it is found in this character in an extremely small number of words, as adomūlaadomáya is of Brāhmaṇa age. The ÇB. has also asāunā́man. But most of the derivatives, as of the cases, come from amu: thus, amútas, amútra, amúthā, amudā, amúrhi, amuvát, amuka.

b. In the older language occurs the root tva (accentless), meaning one, many a one; it is oftenest found repeated, as one and another. It follows the ordinary pronominal declension. From it is made the (also accentless) adverb tvadānīm (MS.).

c. Fragments of another demonstrative root or two are met with: thus, ámas he occurs in a formula in AV. and in Brāhmaṇas etc.; avós as gen.-loc. dual is found in RV.; the particle u points to a root u.

Interrogative Pronoun.

504. The characteristic part of the interrogative pronominal root is क् k; it has the three forms  ka, कि ki, कु ku; but the whole declensional inflection is from  ka, excepting the nom.-acc. sing. neut., which is from कि ki, and has the anomalous form किम् kím(not elsewhere known in the language from a neuter i-stem). The nom. and accus. sing., then, are as follows:

m.

n.

f.

N.

कस्
 
kás

किम्
 
kím

का
 
kā́

A.

कम्
 
kám

किम्
 
kím

काम्
 
kā́m

and the rest of the declension is precisely like that of  ta (above, 495).

a. The Veda has its usual variations, kā́ and kébhis for kā́ni and kāís. It also has, along with kím, the pronominally regular neuterkád; and kám (or kam) is a frequent particle. The masc. form kis, corresponding to kim, occurs as a stereotyped case in the combinationsnákis and mā́kis.

505. The grammarians treat kim as representative stem of the interrogative pronoun; and it is in fact so used in a not large number of words, of which a few — kimmáya, kiṁkará, kiṁkāmyā́, kíṁdevata, kiṁçīlá, and the peculiar kiṁyú — go back even to the Veda andBrāhmaṇa. In closer analogy with the other pronouns, the form kad, a couple of times in the Veda (katpayá, kádartha), and not infrequently later, is found as first member of compounds. Then, from the real roots ka, ki, ku are made many derivatives; and from kiand ku, especially the latter, many compounds: thus, káti, kathā́, kathám, kadā́, katará, katamá, kárhi; kíyant, kīdṛ́ç; kútas, kútra, kúha, kvà, kucará, kukarman, kumantrin, etc.

506. Various forms of this pronoun, as kad, kim, and ku (and, rarely, ko), at the beginning of compounds, have passed from an interrogative meaning, through an exclamatory, to the value of prefixes signifying an unusual quality — either something admirable, or, oftener, something contemptible. This use begins in the Veda, but becomes much more common in later time.

507. The interrogative pronoun, as in other languages, turns readily in its independent use also to an exclamatory meaning. Moreover, it is by various added particles converted to an indefinite meaning: thus, by ca, caná, cid, ápi, vā, either alone or with the relative ya(below, 511) prefixed: thus, káç caná any onená kó ‘pi not any oneyā́ni kā́ni cit whatsoeveryatamát katamác ca whatever one. Occasionally, the interrogative by itself acquires a similar value.

Relative Pronoun.

508. The root of the relative pronoun is  ya, which from the earliest period of the language has lost all trace of the demonstrative meaning originally (doubtless) belonging to it, and is used as relative only.

509. It is inflected with entire regularity according to the usual pronominal declension: thus,

 

Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

m.

n.

f.

m.

n.

f.

m.

n.

f.

N.

यस्
 
yás

यत्
 
yát

या
 
yā́

यौ
 
yāú

ये
 

ये
 

ये
 

यानि
 
yā́ni

यास्
 
yā́s

A.

याम्
 
yā́m

यत्
 
yát

याम्
 
yā́m

यान्
 
yā́n

यानि
 
yā́ni

यास्
 
yā́s

I.

येन
 
yéna

यया
 
yáyā

याभ्याम्
 
yā́bhyām

यैस्
 
yāís

याभिस्
 
yā́bhis

D.

यस्मै
 
yásmāi

यस्यै
 
yásyāi

येभ्यस्
 
yébhyas

याभ्यस्
 
yā́bhyas

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

a. The Veda shows its usual variations of these forms: yā́ for yāú and for yā́ni, and yébhis for yāísyós for yáyos also occurs once;yénā, with prolonged final, is in RV. twice as common as yéna. Resolutions occur in yā́bhias, and yéṣaam and yā́saam. The conjunction yā́tis an ablative form according to the ordinary declension.

510. The use of yát as representative stem begins very early: we have yátkāma in the Veda, and yatkārínyaddevatyà in the Brāhmaṇa; later it grows more general. From the proper root come also a considerable series of derivatives: yátas, yáti, yátra, yáthā, yádā, yádi, yárhi, yā́vant, yatará, yatamá; and the compound yādṛ́ç.

511. The combination of ya with ka to make an indefinite pronoun has been noticed above (507). Its own repetition — as yád-yat — gives it sometimes a like meaning, won through the distributive.

512. One or two marked peculiarities in the Sanskrit use of the relative may be here briefly noticed:

a. A very decided preference for putting the relative clause before that to which it relates: thus, yáḥ sunvatáḥ sákhā tásmā índrāya gāyata (RV.) who is the friend of the soma-presser, to that Indra sing yeyáṁ yajñám paribhū́r ási sá íd devéṣu gacchati (RV.) what offering thou protectest, that in truth goeth to the godsyé triṣaptā́ḥ pariyánti bálā téṣāṁ dadhātu me (AV.) what thrice seven go about, their strength may he assign to measāú yó adharā́d gṛhás tátra santv arāyyàḥ (AV.) what house is yonder in the depth, there, let the witches besahá yán me ásti téna (TB.) along with that which is minehaṅsānāṃ vacanaṁ yat tu tan māṁ dahati (MBh.) but what the words of the swans were, that burns mesarvasya locanaṁ çāstraṁ yasya nā ’sty andha eva saḥ (H.) who does not possess learning, the eye of everything, blind indeed is he. The other arrangement, though frequent enough, is notably less usual.

b. A frequent conversion of the subject or object of a verb by an added relative into a substantive clause: thus, mé ’mám prā́ ”pat pāúruṣeyo vadhó yáḥ (AV.) may there not reach him a human deadly weapon (lit'ly, what is such a weapon); pári ṇo pāhi yád dhánam (AV.)protect of us what wealth [there is]; apāmārgó ‘pa mārṣṭu kṣetriyáṃ çapáthaç ca yáh (AV.) may the cleansing plant cleanse away the disease and the cursepuṣkareṇa hṛtaṃ rājyaṁ yac cā ’nyad vasu kiṁcana (MBh.) by Pushkara was taken away the kingdom and whatever other property [there was].

Other Pronouns: Emphatic, Indefinite.

513. a. The isolated and uninflected pronominal word स्वयम् svayam (from the root sva) signifies self, own self. By its form it appears to be a nom. sing., and it is oftenest used as nominative, but along with words of all persons and numbers; and not seldom it represents other cases also.

b. Svayam is also used as a stem in composition: thus, svayaṁjā́svayambhū́. But sva itself (usually adjective: below, 516 e) has the same value in composition; and even its inflected forms are (in the older language very rarely) used as reflexive pronoun.

c. In RV. alone are found a few examples of two indefinite pronouns, sama (accentless) any, every, and simá every, all.

Nouns used pronominally.

514. a. The noun ātmán soul is widely employed, in the singular (extremely rarely in other numbers), as reflexive pronoun of all three persons.

b. The noun tanū́ body is employed in the same manner (but in all numbers) in the Veda.

c. The adjective bhavant, f. bhavatī, is used (as already pointed out: 456) in respectful address as substitute for the pronoun of the second person. Its construction with the verb is in accordance with its true character, as a word of the third person.

Pronominal Derivatives.

515. From pronominal roots and stems, as well as from the larger class of roots and from noun-stems, are formed by the ordinary suffixes of adjective derivation certain words and classes of words, which have thus the character of pronominal adjectives.

Some of the more important of these may be briefly noticed here.

516. Possessives. a. From the representative stems mad etc. are formed the adjectives madīyaasmadīyatvadīyayuṣmadīyatadīya, andetadīya, which are used in a possessive sense: relating to me, mine, and so on.

b. Other possessives are māmaká (also māmaka, RV.) and tāvaká, from the genitives máma and táva. And RV. has once mā́kīna.

c. An analogous derivative from the genitive amúṣya is āmuṣyāyaṇá (AV. etc.) descendant of such and such a one.

d. It was pointed out above (493) that the "genitives" asmā́kam and yuṣmā́kam are really stereotyped cases of possessive adjectives.

e. Corresponding to svayám (513) is the possessive svá, meaning own, as relating to all persons and numbers. The RV. has once the corresponding simple possessive of the second person, tvá thy.

f. For the use of sva as reflexive pronoun, see above, 513 b.

g. All these words form their feminines in ā.

h. Other derivatives of a like value have no claim to be mentioned here. But (excepting sva) the possessives are so rarely used as to make but a small figure in the language, which prefers generally to indicate the possessive relation by the genitive case of the pronoun itself.

517. By the suffix vant are formed from the pronominal roots, with prolongation of their final vowels, the adjectives mā́vant, tvā́vant, yuṣmā́vant, yuvā́vant, tā́vant, etā́vant, yā́vant, meaning of my sort, like me, etc. Of these, however, only the last three are in use in the later language, in the sense of tantus and quantus. They are inflected like other adjective stems in vant, making their feminines invatī (452 ff.).

a. Words of similar meaning from the roots i and ki are íyant and kíyant, inflected in the same manner: see above, 451.

518. The pronominal roots show a like prolongation of vowel in combination with the root dṛç see, look, and its derivatives -dṛça and (quite rarely) dṛkṣa: thus, mādṛç, -dṛça; tvādṛç, -dṛça; yuṣmādṛç, -dṛça; tādṛç, -dfta, -dṛkṣa; etādṛç, -dṛça, -dṛkṣa; yādṛç, -dṛça; īdṛ́ç, -dṛ́ça, -dṛ́kṣa; kīdṛ́ç, -dṛça, -dṛkṣa. They mean of my sort, like or resembling me, and the like, and tādṛç and the following are not uncommon, with the sense of talis and qualis. The forms in dṛç are unvaried for gender; those in dṛça (and dṛkṣa?) have feminines in ī.

519. From ta, ka, ya come táti so manykáti how many? yáti as many. They have a quasi-numeral character, and are inflected (like the numerals páñca etc.: above, 483) only in the plural, and with the bare stem as nom. and accus.: thus, N.A. táti; I. etc. tátibhis, tátibhyas, tátīnām, tátiṣu.

520. From ya (in V. and B.) and ka come the comparatives and superlatives yatará and yatamá, and katará and katamá; and from i, the comparative ítara. For their inflection, see below, 523.

521. Derivatives with the suffix ka, sometimes conveying a diminutive or a contemptuous meaning, are made from certain of the pronominal roots and stems (and may, according to the grammarians, be made from them all): thus, from ta, takám, takát, takā́s; from sa, sakā́; fromya, yakás, yakā́, yaké; from asāú, asakāú; from amu, amuka.

a. For the numerous and frequently used adverbs formed from pronominal roots, see Adverbs (below, 1097 ff.).

Adjectives declined pronominally.

522. A number of adjectives — some of them coming from pronominal roots, others more or less analogous with pronouns in use — are inflected, in part or wholly, according to the pronominal declension (like  ta, 495), with feminine stems in ā. Thus:

523. The comparatives and superlatives from pronominal roots — namely, katará and katamá, yatará and yatamá, and ítara; also anyáother, and its comparative anyatará — are declined like ta throughout.

a. But even from these words forms made according to the adjective declension are sporadically met with (e. g. itarāyām K.).

b. Anya takes occasionally the form anyat in composition: thus, anyatkāma, anyatsthāna.

524. Other words are so inflected except in the nom.-acc.-voc. sing, neut., where they have the ordinary adjective form am, instead of the pronominal at (ad). Such are sárva allvíçva all, everyéka one.

a. These, also, are not without exception, at least in the earlier language (e. g. víçvāya, víçvāt, víçve RV.; éke loc. sing., AV.).

525. Yet other words follow the same model usually, or in some of their significations, or optionally; but in other senses, or without known rule, lapse into the adjective inflection.

a. Such are the comparatives and superlatives from prepositional stems: ádhara and adhamá, ántara and ántama, ápara and apamá, ávara andavamá, úttara and uttamá, úpara and upamá. Of these, pronominal forms are decidedly more numerous from the comparatives than from the superlatives.

b. Further, the superlatives (without corresponding comparatives) paramá, caramá, madhyamá also anyatama (whose positive and comparative belong to the class first mentioned: 523).

c. Further, the words pára distant, otherpū́rva prior, eastdákṣiṇa right, southpaçcima behind, westernubháya (f. ubháyī orubhayī́of both kinds or partiesnéma the one, half; and the possessive